Plum Smolinka is the most common fruit in most greenhouses in the middle lane. This culture deserves more appeal than others. But, like all fruits, Smolinka plum has pluses as well as minuses.
Plum Smolinka: variety description and characteristics
Plum Smolinka was discovered by horticulture at the Agrarian Institute, tests took place in one thousand nine hundred and eighty, and already in one thousand nine hundred and ninety, the variety was added to the State Register. This hybrid originated from the species: Ochakovskaya yellow and Renklod Ulensa. Such a culture can be planted on the territory of the center of Russia, lands on the territory of Tula are recommended.
The Smolinka plum tree reaches high heights of up to five meters. the crown is oval, in the shape of a trapezoid, there are not many branches, the tree is not overgrown. The color of the bark on the tree is brown, harsh and rough in sensitivity. The branches grow almost straight, angularly, looking at the sky. The size of the knots is small, standard. The foliage is large, reaching a size of about ten centimeters. Do not push. The inflorescences are large, the buds grow in clusters. The color of the inflorescence is snow-white, reaching a size of about fifteen centimeters.
The growing season for the Smolinka plum is early; by the beginning of July, the formation of branches ends its process. By mid-autumn, the tree takes rest. It tolerates moderate frosts and drought. When there are severe frosts during the winter, the tree is injured, but after that it gains its strength. Also tolerates diseases moderately, it is extremely rare to become infected with clasterosporium.
Plum Smolinka: pollinators of the variety
The plum itself Smolinka cannot pollinate itself, therefore additional varieties are planted next to it, for example, Volzhskaya beauty, Skorospelka early, Hungarian Moscow... If the climate is suitable for growing this variety, then the harvest is large, in time - at the end of summer. Fruit formation occurs after four years from planting. One square meter is equal to four kilograms of harvest, and an adult tree gives from twenty to forty kilograms of harvest. This variety does not bear fruit every season; the variety is planted in greenhouses under the supervision of a gardener.
Features of plum variety Smolinka
Plum Smolinka: photo
In appearance, we can say that Smolinka plum is a fruit without humps, smooth, about forty-five millimeters in size, oval shape, weighing up to thirty-five grams, sometimes it grows about sixty grams. The seam is practically invisible. The peel is thin. The fruit is dark purple in color, there is a slight bloom on the skin. The pulp is light green color with a yellowish tinge. The content in the plum is sweet, with a sour taste, such a taste harmony is ideal. Plum contains about twelve percent sugar. The shape of the fruit is considered standard.
The stone inside the plum Smolinka is difficult to come off the pulp. The legs of the fruit are dense, about fifteen millimeters in size, come off easily. They eat fresh plums, they also prepare compotes, dried fruits, and jams.
Plum Smolinka: growing and planting
The crop is usually planted, but the cultivar cannot bear fruit without pollinators, so prepare holes for other crops in advance. The gap should be three to four meters. if pollinated crops are not planted nearby, Smolinka will not be able to bear fruit.
Plum planting time Smolinka
Planting period is spring. In the south, they are planted in the fall. In the middle lane, planting occurs in mid-spring.But such sowing is possible with open roots of the bush. You can plant a culture in a pot when you decide for yourself, but not in the heat. Cultures that are one or two years old adapt quietly. The best solution is to plant a variety from a pot, but these seedlings are more expensive.
Like all plants, the Smolinka plum variety loves light places for growth, without drafts. The ground should not be heavy, clayey. Loam, lightness, looseness for the earth will be ideal. Cannot be grown in lowlands, as well as in lands with groundwater, in too moist soil.
If it so happens that you live in a swampy area, then it is worth making a hill of earth from fifty to eighty centimeters in size, and only under such conditions plant a plum.
Before the fall, the planting site is huddled, weeds, roots from the grass are removed. It is also necessary to saturate the soil, two kilograms of manure, two hundred grams of superphosphate, forty grams of potassium sulfate are prepared for one square meter. To avoid soil acidification, lime is added to it.
With a heavily overgrown mete for planting, it is necessary to thoroughly remove the weeds.
As you know, due to the fact that it is not so easy to make holes in the spring, they are harvested in the fall. The size of the hole is from fifty centimeters in depth, the walls are fifty and eighty centimeters each. The first layer is to make a nutrient mixture, which was prepared in the fall. This mixture includes: peat, manure, compost, coal, superphosphate. If the land is not fertile, then the amount of fertilization increases. It is also worthwhile to make a support in advance, the distance from the soil should be from seventy to eighty centimeters. Then planting is carried out in the spring.
How to plant a plum sapling Smolinka?
The bushes are bought before the planting itself, if you buy it in the autumn, then you will have to drop it in during the winter, and this is not the best way. The seedling should be healthy, without cracks, injuries, dense roots should be from three to four, their size should be about twenty-five centimeters and more. Also look at the color of the seedling, it should not be dark. You cannot plant a plant with open buds. After purchasing a bush, you must:
- Leave the roots of the bush to soak in water for a couple of hours, before that, reduce their size, it is important that there are no injuries. Before planting, you need to put the bush in a clay talker. This mixture will help the plant settle into new soil faster.
- It is necessary to remove part of the earth from the hole, so that the roots are not cramped, I use the land for the hill. The seedling is placed on a hill, the roots are aligned in the hole. The roots must be placed so that they are comfortable, without twisting.
- The neck of the roots should be at a distance of ten or fifteen centimeters from the ground. The pit is filled with soil so that there are no gaps, then you need to tamp the earth. Do not confuse the neck with a vaccine.
- You need to tie it to the support in the form of an infinity sign. You can do this with a rope, a whip. Use ropes that will not harm the culture.
- It is necessary to moisten it with two liters of water, the upper part of the earth must be made even. Next, they make a small near-stem circle of the seedling for irrigation. Water the crop generously, with two liters of moisture quickly absorbing, more water can be added to the soil.
- It is also necessary to add mulch to the roller around the seedling, mulch can serve as: peat, manure, dry soil. Remember, there is no need to scatter mulch next to the seedling, nothing should lie close to it.
After planting in the spring, you should not cut off the branches, just look at the amount of moisture in the soil, at first you need to moisten it regularly so that there is no dryness in the circle around the seedling.
Plum Smolinka: care
There can be only one peculiarity in cultivation - these are neighboring pollinators, since the culture itself will not be able to produce fruits. Flowering occurs at the same time. Smolinka also loves moisture.Therefore, do not forget that the culture reaches great heights in growth, therefore, in order to be more comfortable in harvesting the fruits, it is necessary to maintain growth with the help of a cut. You can take care of this variety in the same way as for other types of plums.
Also, look after soil moisture, especially in young trees, because in the first years after planting, the seedling takes root and takes all the essentials from the soil. As soon as the tree begins to bear fruit, make sure that the ground does not dry out when the inflorescence period and the bunch of fruits. If the weather is not rainy, then you should regularly moisten the soil. As soon as the fruits ripen, do not water often, because the fruit can overripe, crack and fall off the tree. Only before winter is it necessary to moisten the soil well.
If the soil is fertile, then in the first year or two it does not need to be nourished, after two summers you can add urea in the spring. In March, twenty grams of nutrients are added to the ditch around the tree. In wet soil, the fertilizer will go inside by itself, if this does not happen, then help by loosening it.
Urea is considered a fairly good nutrient, which contains nitrogen, it is added to the soil in the spring.
As soon as the tree begins to bear fruit, use a stronger fertilizer. You also need to add humus, superphosphate, a little sulfate to the soil, but potassium chloride is also possible. In the autumn period, you can fertilize with charcoal, preparing for winter, add compost to the hole around the tree, but not right next to the trunk.
You need to cut this crop very carefully. If the cut is not on time or in the wrong way, then gum leakage may occur. Thus, the branches are cut after one year from planting. The branches are cut from the side and the conductors are cut, thereby improving the growth of the branches. Make sure that the culture does not grow sharply.
As soon as the plant bears fruit, a preventive cut is carried out. Healthy branches can not be touched, but dry and injured branches should be removed. If the branches are long enough, then I cut them off by twenty or forty percent. It is worth cutting off the crop until the spring juice comes out. Minor injuries to the tree must be treated with a special garden varnish.
Plum Smolinka gives a sufficient amount of growth, and from a large amount over time, it must be removed. The procedure is carried out quite carefully. The branches are cut directly from the roots, removing excess soil. At the same time, weeds are harvested, then the weeding of the earth near the tree takes place.
It tolerates the cold season painfully, so young trees are insulated before wintering, they start with whitewashing a tree at a pillar gap from the ground by one hundred and fifty centimeters and higher, branches also need whitewashing, this will help in the fight against rodents and cold, do not forget to wrap all the places with nylon ... An adult tree does not need protection from frost so much, but such procedures are carried out on it, because severe February frosts can damage the trunks.
Diseases and pests of plum Smolinka
Plum Smolinka: photo of the variety
If the gardener has agricultural equipment, then the culture can independently protect itself from viruses and insects. To avoid an attack, it is necessary to monitor the crown, it should not be overgrown, the trunks and branches are also whitewashed, the variety needs nutrition. As soon as the symptoms of tree damage appear, it is necessary to start treatment, but before these you understand why the tree got sick.
Next, we will consider some of the diseases that Smolinka plum trees can get sick with.
- Gum therapy
This disease can be due to improper care, cutting, frost, or other diseases. symptoms - resin on the bark of a tree (gum), any infection can get through such injuries.
To prevent illness, injuries are treated with garden varnish. When resin appears, it must be cut off with a knife, and the place of injury is smeared with copper sulfate.
Most summer residents, after disinfection, smear herbs on top, but this can be done.
- Fetal pockets
The symptoms of this disease are the appearance of pockets in the tree, they can become larger in size, but the seeds in them do not grow. The palatability of the fruit becomes poor. Due to this disease, the fruits fall off.
The disease itself is a fungus, such a virus can be in cold cloudy weather. You can fight only with good attention, it is necessary to cut off the dry branches that held the diseased fruits. It is also worth sprinkling the tree with a three percent Bordeaux mixture for prevention before the inflorescence begins, this can reduce the chance of infection.
- Clasterosporium disease
Fungus - The plant carries this disease. Symptoms are small brown spots with a reddish border. The size reaches about five millimeters. Further, holes appear on the leaves, and the fungus spreads further. The leaves dry up and fall to the ground. This can happen with the fruit.
To combat this disease, they do general cleaning of the tree, cut off all injured leaves, particles of fruits that have remained from the season. A 1% burgundy solution will also help. The tree should be sprayed when the buds open, also during inflorescence, and fourteen days before harvest.
- Rotting fruit
Fungus. Symptoms - the branches turn black, a gray bark appears, then the fruit rots, first spots, then the whole fruit completely rots. The plums fall off and the branches dry. Ultimately, the tree may die.
In order for this disease to strike a variety, it is necessary to have agricultural equipment and use it correctly. After harvest, clean up all areas with injuries, disinfect them. Sprinkle with a 1% Bordeaux mixture in front of the inflorescence and at the end.
In July, most often the plum Smolinka is affected by rust. Symptoms - yellowish brown spots can be seen on the leaves, if they are not removed, they will begin to grow. The tree can weaken, and the foliage falls off, the variety can get sick with other viruses.
When fighting, it is worth using a Bordeaux solution, as soon as you see the symptoms of the disease, the treatment should be carried out from fourteen to twenty-one days. Stop healing two weeks before fruit ripening.
The most dangerous and common insects that infect crops: aphids, sawfly, stalk. Rarely can you find ticks, sapwood, and thick-stems.
- Plum sawfly - a fly of medium size, yellow color. It lays the larvae in the ground for the winter. Such larvae kill ovaries, one can destroy up to five. If the destruction takes place for a long time, then the harvest may not be.
- Plum moth - a butterfly, brown in color, somewhat similar to a moth, attacks after the inflorescence of the fruit. Lays the larvae in fruits, also on leaves. Further, the fruits are formed into caterpillars, which eat the flesh of the fruit. Thus, the yield can drop significantly.
- Plum aphid - many agronomists know this insect. Most insects arrive in early summer to mid-summer. This insect can be in the amount of a huge colony, they settle on fruits, branches, foliage. Lives on a fruit stem. It feeds on tree sap, because of this, the variety may lose strength. And young trees can die.
For more severe pests, strong preparations are used - insecticides. There may be such as: Karbofos, Fufanon, Aktara and others.
Also, make sure that these drugs do not harm you. Study the application carefully. How to use it correctly, in what time frame, and how much. This is very important for your own safety!
Plum Smolinka: reviews
For me, Smolinka plum is the best that I have grown for all the time. I love this kind of plum. The fruit grows large, about forty grams. It tastes sweet and pleasant. Better to plant with a bush.
A fairly large fruit planted in the Moscow region, which I know.
Plant Smolinka plum in a good area, where there will be no stagnation and drafts.
Plum Smolinka is very famous for its size and taste. Big harvest, transportability. But beginners in gardening are not advised to take the Smolinka plum variety, because it does not tolerate winter well, cannot develop fruits itself, ripens quickly and releases its fruits.