Lichen on an apple tree.
It is important to understand that the presence of terrible lichens on the bark of trees is a symbiosis of blue-green algae and common fungi. Algae begin to synthesize organic matter so that fungi feed, and fungi, in turn, are collectors of moisture and salts for the vitality of algae. Many people think that such mushrooms have roots and are able to drink tree sap. But this is not about lichen. They have no roots. There is reliable evidence that lichen acid is capable of destroying other fungi that have a destructive effect on wood.
Lichen on an apple tree.
If you do not cut the branches on time, which disrupt the natural ventilation of the crown of the tree, various types of lichens begin to appear on it.
Varieties. At the beginning, a greenish bloom can be seen on the shady side of the tree. This means that the moist crust has begun to be colonized by unicellular algae. For their development, they simply take everything they need from the air, the main thing is that there is no direct sun and the presence of constant humidity. After the algae, mushrooms begin to appear. After that, microscopic spores begin to float in the air in an enhanced mode. They have been there for a long time, disputes can live for several years. They just wait for the most suitable conditions for their appearance. If the bark begins to crack in weakened trees, in addition, the crown is poorly ventilated, then the following types of lichens may appear:
Also, lichens may differ in color:
- Silver gray.
The color of the lichen depends on what type of the simplest algae it belongs to.
Causes of occurrence. When there is a high concentration of air in the air, there is a high probability of the development of fungi precisely on the bark, since it is this bark that is the ideal place for their development. Many people think that if lichens appear on a tree, then it is already old. But this is not the case. The main reasons are:
- Strong thickening of the branches of the crown.
- The root system is in a depressed state.
- The wood is frozen or getting sunburn.
They cannot harm the tree, but they can:
- Close the tree's breathing pores.
- Dangerous pests appear in the pores.
It is for these reasons that it is important to start treating the tree for lichens and mosses. Before you start doing this, you need to understand the cause of the appearance of lichens. But you may be gladdened by the fact that everything is okay with the ecology, since lichen does not appear in polluted regions. Most often, after lichens appear, a parasitic fungus appears after them. But their appearance is completely undesirable.
We provide treatment.
It is rather difficult to establish the specific terms of treatment. Anytime you work on a garden or prune unnecessary and damaged branches, always be aware of the possibility of this problem appearing. The best treatment is to take preventive measures. Lichen can be found on a tree if it is weakened and has a thickened crown. For this reason, it is best to first of all monitor the condition of the crown. It is necessary to deal with both pruning damaged and dry branches, and thinning the crown. This will improve the flow of sunlight, as well as improve the ventilation of the crown. If there is high humidity, then this will be a provoking factor for the development of lichens and fungi.It is also important to treat the site and trees in early spring with 3% Bordeaux liquid or the same concentration of vitriol solution. It is necessary to carry out such processing before the buds begin to dissolve. They process bare branches in order to prevent fungal viral diseases, to prevent powdery mildew, scab and others, as well as cancer). At the same time, there is a suppression and development of microflora in the surface layer of the cortex, namely, unicellular algae begin to develop. Which are engaged in feeding lichens. If the lichen has reached a large size, then it must be carefully removed, the cut site should be treated with a solution of caustic soda (100 g of the substance per bucket of water).
Ways to get rid of lichen.
If there is not so much lichen on the tree, then it can simply be removed by cleaning the affected areas with a wooden scraper. It is best to carry out this procedure with the onset of spring, when the bark is still moistened after snow. When you carry out cleaning work, it is necessary to lay an oilcloth, film or unnecessary cloth under the tree, so that later it would be easier to collect all the garbage. When cleaning the affected areas, do this very carefully so as not to harm the tree. In addition to lichens, the cleanings can contain various pests, infections of bacterial origin, spores of various pathogenic fungi, and various viruses. After the cleaning is over, it is necessary to disinfect the bark with a 3-5% solution of vitriol. For apple crops, ferrous sulfate is best suited. If the tree has cracks that are too deep, then they can be covered using clay, it is best to mix with half of the manure.
We carry out spraying. The best therapeutic and preventive measures are to spray the garden with disinfectants.
- Before the buds bloom, carry out the treatments using a solution of ferrous sulfate (7-10%.). lichens will begin to fall off within 7 days.
- If the lesion is small, then spraying with milk of lime can be carried out. To do this, add 1 kg of lime to 10 liters of water.
- Use a special mixture to lubricate the tree trunk. In 10 liters of water, you need to add salt (1 kg), ash (2 kg), ordinary laundry soap (2 pcs.)
- If the lichen has a stable form, then you need to apply a specially antifungal agent Skor. Before use, you must read the instructions.
The use of folk remedies. When cleaning the affected areas, you can use folk remedies to treat the affected areas. At the same time, the use of such funds will not affect the apples in any way. To prepare the product, you need to take slaked lime (600 g) and powdered sulfur (400 g). Slaked lime must be diluted in 0.5 liters of boiling water and put on a small fire. Stirring gently, add a sulfur solution (in 1.5 liters of water). Stir constantly for 25 minutes until a red color appears. Before use, such a solution must be diluted with water - 100 ml of the substance for 5 liters of water. In a diluted variation, the solution cannot be stored, oxidation occurs in air. If you are going to store the prepared solution for a long time, you must pour it into an airtight container. So that air does not exactly penetrate the surface of the solution, it is best to fill it with machine oil on top. The product helps to get rid of lichens and mosses within 2-3 days. The broth is poisonous, so all manipulations with it must be carried out with gloves.
Preventive and protective measures.
It is important to understand that there are no mosses and lichens on the bark if it is dry and damaged. Therefore, all preventive measures should be aimed at keeping the tree in a healthy state.
- In time to process the garden plot in order to avoid various diseases.
- Apply a balanced top dressing.
- Prune damaged branches.
- Whitewash the boles in order to avoid burns from direct sunlight and freezing. In addition to 3 kg of lime, 150 g of copper sulfate must be added to the whitewash composition. Whitewashing should be done in autumn and spring when you will be pruning your garden. After such pruning, young branches already grow completely healthy. You need to pay attention to those places where the area covered by lichen is relatively large. Dealing with the reasons for such growth is necessary in the first place. Lichen and mosses are symptoms that indicate the presence diseases... but do not forget that they are not dangerous for the life of the tree.
What is important to know.
Even if you know a lot of theoretical knowledge regarding lichens on a tree, sometimes in practice you can encounter various issues that require their immediate solution.
- When and how to process the apple tree. there is no specific time when it is necessary to carry out treatments for lichens. They need to be carried out when there is a need for it. Most often, processing must be carried out together with cutting off damaged and dry branches in the spring and autumn. With the onset of spring, it is necessary to spray it with 3% Bordeaux liquid. This will help keep your garden healthy for a long time. It will not work not to perform such processing, or to carry out it in violation of the terms. After all, this can lead not only to loss of crops, but also to the death of the entire garden.
- We carry out processing in the autumn. In principle, it is not worth it to carry out processing in the autumn to remove lichens. You can simply after you cut off all unnecessary in the fall, you need to carry out a cleanup, whitewash the trunks before the winter season. Copper or iron vitriol (100 g) must be added to the whitewash solution.
- What to do if there is a severe lesion. If you notice that the tree has already been heavily infested either by disease, or if the roots have reached the groundwater. First, you need to clean it using a wooden scraper, first spreading an oilcloth or unnecessary fabric under the tree. After all, collect all the trash and incinerate it. The resulting sections must be processed with a 3-5% solution of vitriol (it is better to choose an iron one). Also, special attention should be paid to pruning those branches that shade the tree. If you sanitize properly, you can keep your garden healthy for a long time. Only weakened trees can be exposed to lichens.
- The apple tree was covered with lichen and began to dry. The apple tree starts to dry thanks not to lichens. They are not the reason that the apple trees can dry out, they are only a consequence.
- The bark must be cleaned well. After such cleaning, you can see what caused the appearance of the fungus. It could be cancer.
- If the tree has cancer, then you will notice black wood.
- You do not need to wait for the onset of autumn, you need to cut off all damaged areas until a healthy part appears.
- All trimmings must be incinerated.
If the tree begins to dry out, then the root system may become wet. Therefore, dry branches must be pruned, the lichen must be cleaned. Disinfect the bark with a 3-5% solution of vitriol.
- Methods for treating an adult tree. Cut off half of the branches on the old tree. No need to wait for autumn to come. This will help solve the problem by about half. Do not forget to process the cleaned areas with a 3-5% solution of vitriol. After cleaning, all debris must be carefully collected and removed from the site or burned.
Lichen control agents.
Fighting mushrooms is not as difficult as it might seem. You can simply carry out sanitary measures to keep your garden healthy and clean.
- Prune dry and damaged branches.
- Whitewash before winter.
- Carry out preventive measures for various diseases.
- Apply the necessary fertilizers.
To combat lichens and mosses, you can use both folk remedies and chemicals.
The use of ferrous sulfate. Iron vitriol is used not only in the fight against lichens. If you apply it with the onset of spring, it will help get rid of diseases such as scab, powdery mildew, rot of various origins. Also vitriol is well suited as an iron top dressing.
How to get rid of the moss growing on the trunk. You can prepare the simplest version of the solution:
- Soda ash (100 g).
- Iron vitriol (100 g).
- Water (10 L).
Apply such a solution with a brush to the affected areas. After a week, you will notice how the moss has disappeared.
- We carry out whitewashing in the autumn. If you are going to carry out whitewashing in the autumn, then you must first cleanse the affected areas of lichen. In addition to using lime for whitewashing (2-3 kg per 1 bucket of water), you can add copper sulfate (100-150 g) or kitchen salt. If you want such a solution to be preserved for the entire winter period, then you can add 1-2 glasses of low-fat milk to the solution. So it is advised to do gardeners with experience in dealing with various misfortunes. Until the age of 5 years, the tree does not need whitewashing.
- We use soda ash. Also, many gardeners advise using soda ash to wash the bark from lichens. Add ½ cup of baking soda to 1 bucket of water. Using a brush, apply the solution to the surface of the lichen, abundantly moisturizing it. After 7 days, you will notice how the lichen will fall off by itself.
- We process with vitriol. As a preventive measure against various pests and diseases, in the spring, before the buds bloom, it is necessary to process the trees with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid. This substance does not have the property of accumulation, therefore, it does not pose a danger to human health. After such treatment, a week later, the lichen falls off by itself.
- We use urea. In order to stop the development of various fungi, you can use urea (a matchbox of the product is dissolved in 10 liters of water). The trunk circle is subject to processing. By carrying out such processing, you can protect your tree from such pests as scab.
And so, let's summarize. Most importantly, lichen does not pose a fatal threat to the tree. But they can become a good shelter for insects dangerous and harmful to the tree. they already become dangerous when spring comes. If you properly care for the trees in your garden, you can avoid various unpleasant moments.
- Prune dry and damaged branches.
- Whitewash stems and branches.
- Carry out preventive measures against diseases and pests.
- Apply the necessary fertilizers.
If your tree is healthy, then you will get a good and rich harvest.