There is not a single person who has not tried these small red berries at least once in his life, which tend to become tastier and sweeter after the first frost, and also decorate the tree with their fruit brushes throughout the winter period. Rowan nevezhinskaya is considered one of the most popular varieties. The most important and important advantage of this variety is that there is no bitterness in the berries of this mountain ash. They are much sweeter than those of the mountain ash, which grows in the forests. But this does not mean that this tree no longer has merits. Let's take a closer look at this subspecies and find out all the advantages of this tree.
Rowan nevezhinskaya: variety description
This variety of mountain ash got its name in honor of the village of Nevezhino, located in the Vladimir region. After all, they have been cultivating it as a garden culture for more than 100 years. In principle, Nevezhinskaya is considered a clone of common mountain ash, which appeared due to nature. If we take into account the unpretentiousness of the tree, then it is not difficult to guess why it is quite famous and widespread in Russia.
Among some gardeners you can hear the name of this mountain ash "Nezhinskaya", but the reason for this name is unknown. Therefore, it would be better to use its real name.
Rowan nevezhinskaya, the height of which can reach up to 10 meters, has a crown shape, depending on the level of illumination. For example, in a shaded area of growth, it has a pyramidal shape. And when it grows in a sufficiently illuminated place, it forms the shape of a ball. Moreover, in this case, the berries that grew only on the periphery will now begin to form in the depths of the crown.
The shade of the bark, in contrast to the usual brownish-gray, will be darker, closer to brown. The mountain ash has a lifespan of 30 years or more, there are even specimens reaching the age of one hundred years.
The leaves of this tree are odd-pinnate and rather large in size. The flowers are ordinary, gather in inflorescences-shields, reaching a diameter of 10 centimeters and having a rather interesting, strong smell.
The berries of this variety have the shape of a ball and outwardly resemble an apple, have a rich red color, or with an orange tint. Each individual berry is capable of reaching a diameter of about 1.5 centimeters. The flowering period of this culture falls on the second half of May and the first half of June.
The fruit is harvested in early autumn, around September-October. It should be noted that this name of mountain ash is considered to be faster collective, since thanks to folk selection, such subspecies as Nevezhinsky red, Nevezhinsky yellow and Nevezhinsky cubic ones were formed.
- rowan nevezhinskaya red endowed with large berries with a rich red hue. It has the sweetest pulp of all.
- rowan nevezhinskaya yellow. A less well-known variety that has large round-shaped berries with a ribbing and an orange-yellow hue. Compared to the variety, the cubic pulp is not so juicy.
- rowan nevezhinskaya cubic. It is the most famous and widespread subspecies. The berries are red with an orange tint, retracted and pentahedral. The pulp tastes quite sweet, with a small amount of acidity, quite pleasant. It also has seeds that are very small, pale brown in color.
It should be noted that in their weight and size, the fruits of these subspecies are almost identical. The largest berries are considered to be near the Nevezhinskaya red mountain ash tree.
Nevezhinskaya mountain ash: useful properties
Why is nevezhinsky mountain ash useful? The berries of nevezhinsky rowan contain just a huge amount of various microelements and vitamins. Consider an example: the presence of vitamin P in a lemon, orange, or apple is ten times less than in these berries.
Another apple lags behind the fruits of this tree by five times in the amount of vitamin C. And with the best in vitamin A content, carrots and rose hips, rowan berries quite successfully compete. Plus, they contain a large amount of vitamins E, B, B2, PP. Therefore, you should not even try to argue about the benefits of these fruits.
In general, these berries contain the following vitamins: PP, A, B1, B2, B9, C, E, Beta-carotene. Macronutrients: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium. Trace elements: manganese, zinc, iron, copper. There is also a place to be in these fruits pectin and fiber - substances that allow you to remove toxic elements and radionuclides from the body.
Phytoncide is present in the rowan foliage and in its bark, this is the primary reason for the remarkable neighborhood of this tree with potatoes, since for it it is a good protection against late blight. Very often, the potato crop left for storage is poured using the leaves of this tree.
But here's what is interesting: if you cut off the branches of a mountain ash and immediately put them in a jar in which there is swamp water. After about three hours, the liquid surprisingly becomes completely usable.
Pros and cons of the variety
The presence in these berries of a huge amount of useful substances and trace elements has already been mentioned above, we add to this only the fact that these fruits are widely used in the manufacture of decoctions and infusions, they make jam, dried for the winter and simply consumed in unprocessed form.
It is also worth noting that the berries of this tree are used as a prophylactic drug, as a treatment for hypertension, vitamin deficiency, exhaustion, anemia, atherosclerosis. Jam from these berries is actively used for colds, rheumatism and lung diseases, as well as for constipation.
The rowan tree nevezhinskaya has the highest level of frost resistance, it grows even where other berry and fruit plants and trees do not survive. The part of the tree located above the surface of the earth is capable of surviving frosts at -50 degrees, and the root system can withstand freezing of the earth to a depth of 40 centimeters to a temperature level of 14 degrees.
Rowan flowers are not afraid of cold weather up to a temperature of -2.5 degrees, due to which, even with unexpected frosts, the probability of a good harvest is at a high level.
This tree has a fairly high maturity. Already by the fourth year of life, the mountain ash can give out its first harvest. It should also be noted here a high level of yield, and every year, because one tree produces an average of 35 kilograms of harvest and more. There were cases when one mountain ash, having an age of more than 35 years, yielded a berry harvest of about one hundred kilograms.
True, it is quite natural that without high-quality and timely care, such an amount of harvest is unlikely to be. It is also worth noting the fact that this mountain ash has high decorative characteristics; it is quite actively used by landscape designers to decorate gardens and parks.
Concerning disadvantages, then the varieties of rowan nevezhinskaya are quite difficult to find. We can only attribute to them the vulnerability of mountain ash to shaded areas, since in such places its development is much slower, and it does not bring a crop, growing there. But this can be completely avoided by planting this tree in a sufficiently illuminated area.
How is rowan nevezhinsky pollinated?
You can also say about self-infertility. This tree cannot set fruit during self-pollination, which is why it should be planted near other varieties, such as Red, Yellow, or Kubovaya. The best option is to have 3-4 trees in the same area to increase the yield.
If the plot is rather small, then it is possible to plant several varieties at once into the crown of the Nevizhinskaya mountain ash. It is also worth noting that by planting this mountain ash in a sufficiently illuminated place, this tree can not only give a large and good harvest, please with its decorative qualities, but also shade other plantings, and thereby shelter them from through winds.
Rowan nevezhinskaya: planting and care
The best place for planting a Nevezhinskaya mountain ash tree will be the eastern or northern side of the site, thanks to which the mountain ash will be able to shelter the most warm-loving plants from the cold and cold winds. Moreover, the nevezhinskaya mountain ash itself quite easily and well tolerates cold winds, due to its high level of frost resistance. But it should also be planted so that it cannot obscure too other landings.
This tree does not require a special soil composition for itself, but still the best option would be for it medium or light loams. And you should also leave a distance between the trees of about five meters.
The planting of the rowan variety Nevezhinskaya should be done in the autumn season, during the period of massive leaf fall, or in the spring, before the buds begin to swell.
For spring planting, the landing hole is prepared in advance, even in the fall. It should be about 70 centimeters deep and one meter in diameter. Before planting, a nutritious mixture is placed in the hole, which consists of 100 grams of potassium salt, 500 grams of superphosphate, 11 kilograms of humus, which is sprinkled on the root system. You can also add about 400 grams of wood ash.
The root neck of a young tree is deepened by five centimeters when planting, so the mountain ash will not be damaged. This is another difference between this tree and other berry and fruit plants. After planting, the mountain ash should be watered quite abundantly and the trunk circle should be mulched with peat or humus.
When planting mountain ash on the site, remember that it well scares off a large number of pests and diseases, so potatoes will be a good neighbor for it, this will help him avoid phytophthora.
How to propagate nevezhin mountain ash?
Multiply mountain ash nevezhinsky in two ways: by budding and grafting:
- Rowan is used in the form of a stock. The best period for budding is the middle of the summer season and the first half of August. Take a sleeping peephole for her.
- The grafting is carried out after July 15, since only during this period the bark is quite simply detached on the rootstock, and the buds are already ripe enough for the scion and have good development.
You can also use the bark graft, but only before the sap flow begins. And also the lateral grafting of the cutting, at the moment when they are cutting into the wood. For this, a seedling is used, the age of which reaches about two to three years with a stem up to 10 centimeters in diameter, which is planted in its permanent place. In this case, the vaccination is done for another year.
When performing systematic feeding, soil treatment, pruning procedure, as well as the prevention and control of various diseases and pests, this mountain ash will receive correct and good development and growth.
Loosening and watering
A very important rule for caring for this mountain ash is regular loosening and weeding of the soil near the tree.For the best growth of this tree in adulthood, in the first two to three years after planting, it is necessary to dig in about three meters in diameter near the trunk circle, and the depth during digging should be approximately two bayonets.
It is important to realize that you do not need to harm the root system, but to feed it. At this time, either compost or other tops are introduced into the soil.
During the first two years, it will be most correct to grow dill, onions, lettuce, garlic on this site, and then other herbal perennials. This will result in sodding of the adjacent place to this mountain ash. After its root system reaches this zone, the soil will already be endowed with necessary and important micronutrients by this time, plus it will allow nitrogen and liquid to pass through quite well.
The soil is loosened for the first time in early spring, after which the procedure is repeated about five more times for the entire season. Such a procedure is considered mandatory at the moment after harvest, after which mulching with compost or peat should be carried out.
This variety of mountain ash is completely undemanding to the presence of vagi, although it is extremely negative about drought, at this moment the yield drops rapidly, and the quality of the berries also decreases. To prevent this from happening, during the drought period, it is imperative to water the mountain ash at the very beginning of the growing season, 2.5 weeks before the start of harvesting and at the same time after harvesting.
At this time, three buckets of liquid can go per tree, and this water should be poured into a specially dug groove around the tree trunk. Remember the main thing: the more mature the mountain ash and the drier the soil, the more liquid should be spent on watering it.
In the middle zone of our country, rowan nevezhinskaya overwinters beautifully without any insulation. The vegetative and generative buds of this tree are less resistant to cold weather, although returned frosts are quite easy to survive.
Fertilizers and feeding
Carrying out top dressing in a systematic manner helps to achieve a better and higher yield. Annually, in the spring, humus about 7 kilograms and about 50 grams of ammonium nitrate are introduced into the tree trunk circle for digging. Even annually, at the very beginning of the summer period, a fresh mullein solution is poured in, which should be diluted in 10 liters of liquid, observing a ratio of one to five.
Instead of a mullein, you can use bird droppings, but already observing the proportion of one to ten. At the end of the summer season, fertilizing is also added annually, in the form of 500 grams of wood ash and 100 grams of superphosphate. This is done in the post-harvest period.
Rowan nevezhinskaya: how and when to prune
After planting rowan ordinary nevezhinsky, you can carry out the pruning procedure after about five years. Until this time, no such procedures have been applied to mountain ash, and, accordingly, during this period the tree forms its crown of an arbitrary shape, and not pyramidal. Therefore, by this time, they begin to carry out the procedure for its formation.
We take the main conductor to the side branch, and cut off the two-, three-year-old stems. We remove the semi-skeletal branch on the ring, shorten the annual stems by one third, so that the beginning of the rapid regrowth of young and new shoots begins.
In the month of May, the skeletal branches should be bent to the soil with the help of stretch marks. We attach the twine to the middle of the branch, having previously attached a piece of fabric of some kind under it. In this case, the other end is fixed on the peg.
A prerequisite is to tie the middle of the branches, and not the apical part, otherwise the formation of tops may begin on the folds, which will need to be removed. In this position, the mountain ash stands until the autumn period, and with the arrival of autumn, all the ropes are untied.
In the spring, young growths are cut off, as well as the upward-looking shoots on the main conductor, and also tops are vertical. All these actions help to keep the growth of the tree. After that, the branches that grow inside the crown and under each other, which thicken it, should be removed.
In the autumn period, for preventive purposes, sanitary pruning of Nevezhinskaya mountain ash is done, during which dry and damaged stems are removed.
Pests and the fight against them
Rowan nevezhinskaya: Photo of the variety
Among the most common and dangerous pests of this tree, it should be noted: mountain ash mite, red-winged hawthorn elephant and mountain ash moth.
The mountain ash moth damages the fruits of the common mountain ash nevezhinsky. She makes moves in the berries of a small size, due to which bitterness begins to appear in the berries and they are covered with spots of a dark shade. For prevention, they dig up the soil under the mountain ash, only very carefully and shallowly, so as not to accidentally harm the roots lying close to the surface.
Fallen leaves are collected and disposed of by incineration, as cocoons may be present. The bark of the tree is cleared of various growths and lichens. To combat mountain ash moth, the means used when the apple moth appears. In this capacity, a decoction of tansy acts, for this, 300 grams of plants are taken for 10 liters of water, this is insisted before the fermentation period and diluted with liquid twice.
This broth is used first after the flowering period, and then up to 4 more times with an interval of 5 days. Entobacterin is also considered a good drug, which is quite actively used at temperatures of 21-25 degrees and more. The first time they are treated one week after the flowering period, and the second and third times are carried out with a difference of two weeks.
The red-winged hawthorn elephant gnawing the stalks can be blamed for the drying out of the berries. To combat it, in the autumn, the soil around the tree is loosened, and they are also treated with such means as Fufanon and Decis.
The most common pest for mountain ash is the mountain ash gall mite, which destroys flower buds, thereby reducing the yield of this crop. To combat this pest, fallen leaves are collected and burned, and at the time between the period of flowering and the formation of new leaves, treatment with gray colloidal is carried out.
It is also necessary to note the periodic invasions of mountain ash and green apple aphids, which suck all the necessary and important juices from mountain ash. When it appears, the leaves of young and new stems begin to shrink and curl at the tips. At the first manifestation of this small harmful insect, an insecticide is used, for example, Karate, Actellik or Decis.
Diseases with which mountain ash nevezhinskaya is ill
Among the most common diseases of this tree are anthracnose, powdery mildew, rust, moniliosis, leaf spot.
The most famous and common trouble of rowan is considered rust, which can cause quite severe damage to the tree. It affects foliage, manifests itself as the formation of spots of an orange-yellow hue on the outside of the leaves. Most often, rust attacks this tree in cases where mountain ash grows close to a juniper, since this plant is the site of one of the stages of development of this disease.
To combat this ailment, it is required to fence the tree from the juniper plant, if any, cut off the infected stems and treat with one percent Bordeaux liquid, up to three times in one season. Processing should begin in the month of May, and the next is done at intervals of about 25 days.
The reason blotches foliage are fungi of various kinds, which is why the signs of its presence tend to differ from each other.In one case, there may be the appearance of small spots of a brown or ash-gray shade with a dark edging. To combat it, no matter what kind of disease appeared, it is required to collect all the old and affected foliage and dispose of it by burning, and then process the mountain ash with one percent Bordeaux liquid.
Fruit rot, or otherwise moniliosis, is very dangerous during the period of prolonged rains and low temperature conditions. The manifestation of the disease is difficult to miss - shoots and foliage begin to become covered with a brownish-brown tint and dry out, outwardly it looks like a severe burn. With this disease, the fruits begin to rot directly on the tree itself and become covered with numerous lumps of a creamy white tint.
In dry warm weather, the development of the disease slows down, but does not go away, returning with the first rains. To combat it, a remedy such as Hom is used. One percent Bordeaux liquid can also fight the disease well.
Disease powdery mildew very often affects new shoots and rowan foliage. Initially, it manifests itself as the appearance of a whitish coating, which subsequently coarsens and forms a dark shade of spots. The spread of the disease is much faster in humid and warm weather.
In order to stop the spread of infection, it is required to collect all the fallen leaves and burn, and during the growing season, dusting is done with a special mixture consisting of lime and ground sulfur, in a ratio of one to two. Moreover, one square meter can take about 0.3 grams of such a mixture.
Another common ailment of mountain ash is considered anthracnose. It manifests itself as the formation of dark brown spots on the fruits, on which there are controversial pads with a fungus. If these diseases are affected, the fruits must be immediately removed and disposed of by burning, and then the mountain ash is sprayed with a universal remedy for diseases of a fungal nature, which is one percent Bordeaux liquid.
Rowan nevezhinskaya: when to harvest?
Rowan nevezhinskaya: Photo of the variety
In the first half, the ripening of the fruits of the rowan ordinary Nevezhinsky begins, and then they can already be frozen for the winter period, or consumed in an unprocessed form. These berries can retain their excellent taste characteristics for a long time, due to the rather good density of the fruits.
It is worth noting the fact that even without using freezing and without a refrigerator, the fruits of this mountain ash can be stored for about 60 days. Moreover, during this time, no bacteria and harmful microbes can settle. If you want to preserve the harvest for a longer time, then you need to apply freezing of berries. First, they are washed and left to dry, after which they are laid out in ordinary plastic bags, and then tightly closed and placed in the freezer. In this form, the berries of this mountain ash can retain their qualities for up to two years.
They also use drying and even dry the fruits of this tree, it turns out a wonderful and very healing delicacy, which also has the ability to long-term storage. Various decoctions, tinctures, fruit drinks and juices, syrups are actively made from fresh berries, and they also make an interesting and unusual marshmallow.
It is worth noting one important circumstance: if the crop was harvested at the time when the first frosts have already passed, then it is worthwhile to use or consume the berries faster, since the fruits already touched by frost lose their ability for long-term storage.
Rowan nevezhinskaya: reviews
Rowan nevezhinskaya is rightfully considered one of the most famous and favorite subspecies growing on the territory of our country.For lovers of this tree, this is truly the best variety, which is quite unpretentious in care, has a high level of cold resistance and excellent taste, without the bitterness characteristic of mountain ash.
But in order to achieve a really plentiful and high-quality harvest, you should still follow some rules for caring for this tree, and then the result will not be long in coming.
On the Internet, you can see a large number of reviews about this mountain ash. Here are some of them:
I live in Central Russia. We have been growing this variety of mountain ash for many years on our site. The tree feels great here! Frosts are nothing to her, the harvest is gorgeous. True, at the moment we have only one in our garden, although initially there were three. One grew in a shady place and the yield was much lower, so they cut it down, and the second one was split by lightning. So there is only one thing left, but it grows in a sunny place and brings so much harvest that this is enough.
Irina, 62 years old.
I want to note that if you pick the berries of this variety of rowan after the first frost, then the taste of rowan nevezhinskaya is not inferior at all, and the berry is of a larger size.
Yuri, 53 years old
I remember that even my grandmother in the Vladimir region had this rowan in the garden. And we, as children, simply adored her. And when collecting, how fun it was to crawl on it! It is perfectly obtained in the form of jam, compote, and also nevezhinskaya mountain ash tastes amazing when dried and frozen. I advise everyone to land at their place, you will definitely not regret it!
Natalia, 48 years old.