Fruit moth on an apple tree. Control methods
Many gardeners can observe caterpillars on their favorite apple trees. It is she who is called - the moth. It is considered the most popular and dangerous insect. There are others, of course, but this one is superior. It is divided into two types, the most common are the oriental and apple varieties. An adult, that is, a butterfly, does not bear much harm. The villainous is mainly the caterpillar larva. Absorbs, that is, harms, directly to apple pulp and seeds at the stage of development, active growth. As a result, the fruits begin to fall off very early and rapidly turn to rot.
The activity of the moth on an apple tree can destroy up to a third of the entire crop. Our article is intended to inform you how to prevent the appearance of a butterfly, and as a last resort - methods of dealing with the moth caterpillar.
Fruit moth on an apple tree. Insect features and signs of presence
Fruit moth on an apple tree: pest photo
The abundant flowering of the apple tree is quite a beautiful and fragrant sight. If the numerous presence of a butterfly is added to this vision, and if you look closely, you find microscopic holes in the ovaries, you can firmly say you have a problem. The apple tree was attacked by a moth.
An additional feature is fallen fruits that have just begun to form. If the fruit is cut, you can find small gnawing trenches, the seed chamber of the apple is also damaged. All doubts have disappeared. The moth is in full activity.
The eastern moth is one of the dangerous, quarantine enemies of the apple tree. In southern countries, it can develop up to the fifth generation, up to seven larvae can be located in one apple. Such an amount is capable of destroying the crop by 80% in a fairly short period of active action.
The entire European part of Russia is suffering from a butterfly invasion. Far East, Siberia, Ukraine, Caucasus and several other countries. The greatest activity of the moth: Russia, the Zone of Ukraine, the mountainous Crimea.
Atmospheric events, such as prolonged drought, can greatly affect the number of moths. The heat can cause massive caterpillar death, almost 100%, provided that the air humidity has dropped to 30%.
An important point! Particularly noticeable is the general destruction of weather by whims in the dry and rather hot month of July, until the moment the caterpillar hits the fetus. This destruction is observed in the northern regions and the non-black earth.
What is the moth
Fruit moth on an apple tree: pest photo
Consider the external features of the moth. A plump, small worm, caterpillar, gray dots are located on a reddish-pink body. If you check by touch, you will not find any hint of hairiness or pubescence.
The head is brownish-red. Due to its color, the caterpillar looks very bright and it is difficult for it to hide in the monochromatic green of the tree. One outward sign is the presence of legs with palpable claws. There are fake legs in the back, but there are claws too. The total length of the caterpillar does not exceed two centimeters.
Consider the life cycle of a butterfly in stages:
- active years of adults, butterflies;
- the moment the moth eggs are laid in secluded places;
- the appearance of first-year caterpillars;
- searching for food, mastering the fruit, apple;
- the process of eating fruits;
- the period of the caterpillars leaving the fruit for the pupation process.
Fruit moth on an apple tree: methods of struggle
Fruit moth on an apple tree: pest photo
Don't miss an important moment!
The time between these stages is very short, all development processes are quite dynamic. In each climatic zone, gardening zone, these terms are different. It is worth considering such dynamics of development and not delaying the response. The number of generations that can survive on one apple tree also differs in number. Depends on the place, region of residence.
In the northern regions, the moth on an apple tree can grow up to two generations per season. The southern climate is the most favorable for butterfly breeding. Therefore, three generations of caterpillars can grow in such an area. The most comfortable living of the eastern species of butterfly is observed in the southern zones of Russia. The number of generations in such conditions reaches a maximum of five generations.
The moment the first generation appears in the apple orchards of the northern regions falls on the period of the formation of small apple fruits. Around the end of May until the end of June. In the southern regions, this moment comes much earlier. Caterpillar activity can be observed on the first days of May.
By the onset of the winter period, there are already adults of 4-5 generations. White silky cocoons spend hibernation in their warm "blankets". Although this may only be the second or third generation, this fact is much less common.
The moth attacks almost all varieties and types of apple trees. There are no absolutely resistant varieties at the moment. The fact was noticed that the most favorite delicacy for the moth are fruits, sweeter, more delicious, intended for fresh consumption, making jams, mashed potatoes, and preserves. Juicing varieties are less affected.
There are several methods of dealing with the moth on an apple tree:
It is worth focusing attention! It is necessary to use all available methods simultaneously. This is the only way to completely destroy even the slightest presence of the moth.
Prune the apple tree in a timely manner. Feed with essential nutrients. Proper watering and regular maintenance of the soil around the tree. All such significant points contribute to the apple tree's resistance to the slightest or large-scale pest attacks.
As a result of unstable frosts, damage to the tree by hail, or, even worse, overfed with organic matter, the apple tree becomes very accessible for the active actions of the caterpillar butterfly.
The simplest method, and most importantly the safe one, is the variety of crops in your garden. Thus, a lot of attention is attracted by various natural predators, which, in turn, are the worst enemies of the moth.
By their activity, they are able to destroy almost 50% of the caterpillars. It turns out natural destruction, without the use of chemistry, which is still quite safe for humans and the environment. Also serves as a preventive measure against the moth. It is necessary to create such conditions in the garden under which the entire life cycle of the pest butterfly becomes almost impossible or partially disrupted, which again reduces the number of moths on the apple tree.
Why does the moth survive in your garden?
Fruit moth on an apple tree: pest photo
What helps a butterfly to maintain vital activity, activity of actions on an apple tree for a long time, almost five generations? The first thing that can be distinguished is the abundance, reproduction during one season by generations, and the multiple presence of secluded places for a comfortable wintering.
There can be a huge number of places where the moth hides on an apple tree for the winter:
- when the age of the garden is quite impressive, cocoons have the opportunity to hide in cracked bark.The height of the places-tabs above the soil is not higher than 60 centimeters;
- some pupae overwinter in the soil, directly under the apple tree;
- places where you store humus, various supports for tall trees. Possible buildings located near trees. Even just shelters located in the area of your entire site;
- if the garden is young enough, the caterpillar can hibernate at the root system itself, no deeper than 8 centimeters.
- container for storing apples. Getting to such places occurs with the help of fruits, where the caterpillar has mastered even during activity.
How to deal with a moth on apple trees using chemicals?
Processing apple trees from the moth: photo
Prevention is a good way to avoid moths. But the efficiency is enough for 30%. We have to use the method of spraying with chemicals of synthetic origin. Such substances are based on organophosphorus compounds. In some cases, neonicotinoids and pyrethroids are used.
Further, we will consider in more detail the timing and methods of processing the apple tree when the moth appears, as well as for the prevention of its appearance. Selects methods that do not do much harm to the crop and the tree in particular.
Fitoverm - a complex of effects, absorbed through the outer shell after spraying the apple tree. As a result of the absorption of fruits treated with chemicals by the pest, the poison enters the body, affecting the nervous system, paralyzing it, which leads the pest to inevitable death.
Draw your attention to the fact that all substances based on "aversectin-C" have an effect of no more than 480 hours, and the use of such preparations is strictly prohibited during the period when the apples are already full of juice !!!
The question arises when choosing drugs. Is it safe to use herbicides? It is safe to say that this is a complete divorce of the manufacturer-seller. These substances are not able to save your garden. But there is a huge chance of ruining your favorite apple trees.
Herbicide substances are a poisonous substance used to destroy weeds in fields and plots. The caterpillar will not be able to harm in any way.
Use the advice !!! Always purchase all drugs for pest and disease control only in specialized stores, with all certification, and only from a trusted manufacturer.
Let's talk about compounds that can destroy caterpillars, but leave your long-awaited harvest intact. The most effective pesticides, which are purchased in a specialized store, perfectly help in the fight against the moth, it can be emphasized:
- Karate-Zeon, Kinmiks, Sumi-alpha, Lambda;
- Actellic, Pirimifos;
The impact of such is carried out by the system: Confidor, Talstar, Fastak, Tanrek, Taran.
The drugs are derived from neonicotinoids. Pyrethroids are specially derived substances. They can only partially penetrate the leaf cover and apples, they are perfectly retained by the cells on the surface. The use of the above substances guarantees a 100% effect on the pest.
The most important!!! It is necessary to use the drugs strictly one month before the fruits are fully ripe.
Have you used only one of the available poisons for several years? No system followed during processing? The question arises, how to process cultivated trees once again and carry out such a procedure in accordance with all the rules for the use of pesticides?
The use of a mixed chemical composition is recommended. It is advisable to purchase ready-made mixtures in a store; it is rather painstaking work to prepare them yourself. And any mistake can lead to loss of crops or harm the human body after eating processed apples.
So, the recommended mixtures:
- Lambda Cyhalothrin + Imidacloprid;
- Chlorantraniliprol + Thiamethoxam.
Compounds known to all: Dichlorvos, Karbofos, Fufanon. All of these compounds are quite persistent and poisonous. They are leaders in the fight against the moth. Their consumption is insignificant for a certain area of processing, and the temporary impact on the moth is of a fairly high level.
Apple moth: how to spray trees from a pest
Spraying an apple tree from a moth: photo
It is advisable to sprinkle an apple tree from a moth by a shower. Special devices, industrial sprayers will help with this. The shower is very densely capable of covering the entire volume of the green cover of the apple tree, completely all the shoots and even the rudiments of apples. At the same time, the consumption of the drug is much less.
Wind gusts do not spread the solution of the drug to neighboring plants, the risk of poisoning the crop in the neighborhood is reduced significantly.
At what time to spray the apple tree from the moth
Every gardener is simply obliged to know how and especially during what periods to spray from the moth. The time frame is different in each region. Even the spring period is different every year.
It will simply not be possible to set any time frames, because the definition of each period comes in different ways, on the spot. Just don't miss the moment, for example, during the active summer of the butterfly. It also depends on the number of individuals and the rate of spread.
During this period, it is recommended to use organophosphorus. The complete extermination of the pest at the stage of fertility is deliberately carried out. The caterpillar is simply physically unable to reach the fruits at this age, so the result of spraying will be almost 100%.
It is worth using: Admiral, Zolon, Calypso, Chlorpyrifos and a number of other means. A group of drugs that can regulate the development and growth of insects. An adult begins to lay eggs on an already poisoned surface, so the caterpillar does not have a single chance of survival.
You can also use the poisonous compound Chlorantraniliprol + Thiamethoxam;
Summer: the culture has faded, the fruits are set, mass ripening begins
In the period of maturity, apples should never be treated with chemicals. At the moment, pheromone traps, belts, biological products, decoctions from herbs dangerous for the caterpillar come to the rescue. The method is used for apple trees of summer and autumn ripening.
Important!!! No chemicals, synthetic poisons;
How beautiful she is. The long-awaited harvest has been gathered. Massive leaf fall begins. Now is the time to start a complete, fruit-safe gardening. Any remedy can be applied. Spray the crown of the apple tree with chemicals. Old bark from the trunk and branches must be removed with special garden scrapers. It is not advisable to carry out all these procedures earlier than the autumn period.
The first stage of spraying at the beginning of the growing season for an apple tree is early spring-early summer. Until the beginning of abundant flowering. This process consists of two stages: before and after flowering. The period after fruit set comes to an end.
How often should you spray? Places of formation of at least two generations of the moth, on winter varieties of apple trees, must be processed at least 4 times. Summer varieties require less processing, no more than two sprays.
In those regions where a butterfly can breed up to three generations, experience recommends spraying summer apples five times, and winter varieties should be treated 7 times.
Daily time for processing an apple tree from a moth
It is advisable to choose a more cloudy weather, there should be no wind at all. Carry out the procedure in the early hours or after sunset. Changes in the weather during the day can reduce the effects of the poison. Windy weather increases the risk of spreading pesticides to neighboring crops and areas.
If we take the south of Ukraine, the Lower Volga region, the Stavropol Territory or the Rostov region, then there are their own time frames for processing an apple tree. Flowering ends and only after 13-15 days can it be sprayed. The first caterpillars appeared, you count about 18 days and start processing the tree.
North Caucasus, Krasnodar Territory: 11 days after the mass flowering of apple trees - do the first stage of processing. The second period is 21 days after the first. Found caterpillars in falling apples - start the third stage of processing. The fourth period - on the twentieth day after the third. Four steps are enough.
But if a situation of mass caterpillar activity arises, perform the fifth treatment, this applies only to winter varieties.
Methods for controlling the moth on apple trees with ecological means
What is ecology? This is the pure world around us. Accordingly, ecological means should be useful to the plant and not cause any harm to everything that surrounds the culture, especially to humans.
The least hazard should be the target of such treatment. Special biologicals, traps, belts. This all contributes to the destruction of the harmful caterpillar.
Further in the article, we will analyze a little the most popular similar methods for dealing with the moth:
- Pheromone traps. Created on the basis of the "pheromone, SR-MK" form. An important point when using traps! No matter how many apple trees are in your garden, it is necessary to apply the method simultaneously on all trees, and not only. All adjacent garden areas should also be trapped at the same time. Otherwise, there will be a large accumulation of male moths in the area that you have deprived of your attention. The effect of the method will become very insignificant. You might even say you’re just wasting your precious time;
- can be considered folk remedies. They are the most environmentally friendly in relation to the environment. Herbs known to all: wormwood, tomato tops, potato tops - make simple decoctions. You can make an infusion of makhorka. The simplest and not time-consuming is the collection and subsequent burning of all the collected, fallen leaves under the apple tree. All untimely fallen, rotten fruits, chipped or cracked bark (if the action is carried out in the autumn period) - burn;
- the use of biological products (fight without the use of chemicals). The most popular ones can be noted: "Fermo-Virin YAP" and Lepidocide. Spraying according to the rules for using the drug;
- Fishing belts. The basis of such a belt is the canvas. Without adding any drug to the surface of the belt, it's just a caterpillar trap. Once you get it, you can manually collect it from your belt. By adding pesticides to the surface, you will make a "death belt" for the pest caterpillar. The belts must be installed approximately two days before the active exit of the very first generation caterpillar from already damaged apples. The signal to start the operation is the detection of a worm on fallen apples. Inspect the located belts approximately once every 14 days. Everything that you find, pupae, caterpillars, absolutely everything must be shaken off or collected and sent to a prepared container with soapy water. If you have installed a "poison belt", there is simply no need for inspection. Re-impregnate the belt every 10-12 days. What is the composition of the belt glue? You can use plain petroleum jelly or a special glue mixture. There is another option for preparing an adhesive mixture: 450 grams of wax + rosin 290-300 grams + 1 liter of oil, preferably of vegetable origin. Heat the first two components over low heat, only then add the oil. The resulting cooled mass should have excellent stickiness and not drip from the spoon;
- integrated protection involves the use of all possible methods to combat the moth. But in this case, the approach must be deliberate, careful. Since there is a very high risk of harm not only to the crop, but to the environment, including humans. What methods can be combined? The list includes: physiological, mechanical, agrotechnical, biological, chemical methods of control and at least some kind of inhibition of the spread and reproduction of a dangerous pest of the apple moth. The main purpose of using this method is to save material costs, use the least amount of your energy and cause the least harm to the environment. If you approach this method carefully, calculate the proportion of compatibility of all the methods used, then this method can be considered probably the most effective method.
Fruit moth on an apple tree: pest photo