Fern diseases and pests with photos and descriptions.
No matter how you care for your plants, sometimes you still cannot completely protect them from fungal diseases and harmful insects, which can appear absolutely at any time. Such misfortunes do not bypass from the fern, and it does not matter at all where it grows, in your garden, or at home on the windowsill. For example, indoor plants are very often affected by the fact that the air is too dry. Or with too frequent watering, when the plant does not have enough sunlight, it also begins to suffer. But unfortunately, at the initial stage, it is not outwardly noticeable that the plant does not like something. But it is already becoming much weaker, and it simply does not have enough strength to prevent both disease and insects. Not only the fern, but any weakened plant is much easier and more likely to succumb to pests, so if you notice that something is wrong with your plant, measures must be taken immediately so that the pests of the fern do not lead to the death of the plant.
Fern pests and diseases: how to prevent?
So that your fern, and it doesn't matter which one, what grows in the garden or what grows on the windowsill, has some pests, and it doesn't matter what it will be, an insect or a disease, even a slight deviation from the norm is enough. An increase or decrease in air humidity, an increase or decrease in watering, and many other deviations will definitely lead to the fact that fern pests will soon appear. Precisely in order to prevent this from happening, it is necessary to carry out prevention. First of all, the fern must be regularly inspected, and about once a month, the earth must be shed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, this will disinfect the soil. If the plant grows in the house, then the room should be regularly ventilated. If prevention is carried out constantly, then most likely your plant will always be healthy and strong, but if suddenly something happens to it, then by carrying out all of the above, simple actions, then you will notice the pests of the home fern immediately, and it will be much easier to eliminate them and without causing absolutely any harm to your fern. But if measures are not taken immediately, then insects, or the disease will quickly multiply and spread, then getting rid of them will be much more difficult, and the plant itself at this time will be very difficult, and it may even die.
Basic fern care for pests and diseases
Caring for a fern is not as difficult as it might initially seem, here are the top tips from experienced gardeners:
When planting a fern, the ground must be decontaminated. If you plant it in pots at home, then it is best to buy the earth in a gardening store, or prepare it yourself, and be sure to ignite it well. And when planting a fern on a site, the land in the chosen place must be shed with potassium permanganate.
If a fern is already growing in your house or on the site, and you decide to purchase more, then the new plants need to be very carefully examined, they must be completely healthy.
Make sure that the fern is not in a draft, or in extreme heat. And never place the plant pot on items such as TV, refrigerator, etc. In such places, the plant can die very quickly, or when watering, you risk spilling water and getting onto the equipment.
Fern diseases with a description
If the fern is sick, this can be seen almost immediately, especially if your plant is attacked by any fungal disease.
First of all, a bloom may appear on the leaves of the fern, gradually it passes to the shoots of the plant.
Leaves may soon begin to curl towards the center.
The root system of the plant begins to rot, the plant begins to wither. Gradually, this rot will spread to the stems of the fern.
All these signs mean that he was attacked by a fungus, or some kind of infection. First of all, all affected parts must be immediately removed from the fern, and any preparations for protecting the plant must be purchased from a gardening store and used strictly following the instructions. Also, be sure to keep an eye on their expiration date. Also, if there are a small number of pests on the fern, then you can use folk methods, such as: infusion or decoction of onions, garlic or mustard. They need to gently spray the plant from a spray bottle.
Ferns also very often have such diseases as: Fern anthractosis - with this disease, brown spots appear on the fern leaves. As soon as they appear, the spotted leaves will need to be immediately removed and burned, and the plant itself will need to be treated with a fungicide. After that, do not spray the fern for 10 days, and the watering itself will need to be halved.
Root rot - with this disease, the fern leaves begin to turn yellow immediately, and if you do not immediately take any measures, that is, do not reduce watering as much as possible, then the plant will simply die, because this disease itself appears due to waterlogging of the earth.
Leaf spot - initially brown spots appear on the leaves, which grow over time and occupy an ever larger leaf area. If this happens to your fern, then you need to immediately remove all affected leaves and burn them. The plant itself must be treated with a fungicide and for 3-4 days stop watering and spraying.
Gray rot - in this case, white mold appears on the plant itself and on the ground around it. To prevent this disease from attacking, first of all, it is necessary to carry out prevention: there should not be crowding between the plants. As mentioned above, the room needs to be regularly ventilated, but there should be no draft. You need to water the fern bush right under the root so that water does not fall on the leaves. Do not feed the fern with fertilizers that are high in nitrogen, this will only harm the fern. If you suddenly notice this disease on your plant, you need to immediately remove and burn such leaves and, as with other diseases, the fern should be treated with a fungicide, and watering should be stopped for several days.
The main pests of the fern with a description
Fern pests: photos
Very often, a weakened plant is affected by harmful insects and this is immediately noticeable: the whitefly - this insect lays its transparent larvae, which are difficult to notice on the back of the leaf. Adult insects are somewhat similar to flies, only white. Its wings are small, and as soon as you touch or shake your plants, insects will immediately fly upward in a white cloud, but these are only adults. In order to overcome this pest, in the fall, when it gets colder, take the pot with the fern outside or on the balcony and shake it well. All adult insects will scatter, and the leaves on which the larvae remain will need to be treated with a special preparation, which is sold in any gardening store.
Fern Pests White Podura - these are very small insects that jump on the ground, they are somewhat reminiscent of small fleas. They appear due to high humidity. Therefore, if they appear in your pot, then the plant must be stopped from watering so that the earth dries well.And it is also best to pour a small layer of sand on top of it.
Root mealy wormc - with this pest, the plant itself and the walls of the pot in which it grows is covered with a voluminous white bloom. If your plant has suffered from it, then it must be urgently transplanted into a new, disinfected soil, best of all in another pot, or this one should be washed well and kept in hot water at least 80 degrees, and then rinsed in cold water. From the roots of the fern itself, it is imperative to clean it from the ground and rinse them with warm water. Be sure to keep such a plant away from others so that the larvae of the worm do not infect other plants as well. Also, at first it will not be superfluous to water the plant with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Mealybug - when this pest appears on absolutely any parts of the fern, a voluminous, white bloom appears under which females and, accordingly, the larvae of the pest are located. In order to get rid of the insect, you need to remove all parts of the fern that the worm managed to hit, and you also need to remove the top layer of earth from the pot, and pour in a new, disinfected one.
Fern pests: photos
Nematodes - this is a kind, transparent discharge on the leaves, which gradually fall into the soil and the leaves simply fall off. And this happens because the plant infects the worm. Because of this, the root system of the plant suffers greatly and the fern simply dies. To get rid of this misfortune, you need to remove the fern from the pot, prune the roots and plant it in new soil, which will be disinfected.
Spider mite - the web of this pest entangles fern leaves. They, in turn, begin to turn yellow and fall off. And this happens due to the fact that the insect simply sucks out the juices of the plant. It is almost impossible to see the larvae of this pest, since they are very small and almost transparent. Basically, a mite appears due to the fact that the air in the room is too dry. In order to get rid of this insect, you can use a water extract of garlic or soapy kerosene water. Spraying should be carried out several times with an interval of 5-7 days.
Aphid - this pest often infects absolutely any plants. In itself, this is a very small insect, but it appears en masse and multiplies very quickly. If aphid attacked the fern, then outwardly it is immediately noticeable. First, it attacks en masse and can be of different colors. At the same time, the leaves are quite deformed. Aphids suck out absolutely all the juices from the plant, the leaves begin to dry and, in addition to the fern, other plants will begin to suffer very quickly, because the aphid spreads very quickly. In order to get rid of this insect, the plant must be washed with soapy water, and then treated with chlorophos solution or with an infusion of wood ash. If the plant has suffered greatly from this pest, then it must be cut off, even at the very root. Many drugs that are sold in gardening stores will also help fight aphids. If you want to use the traditional method, then a water extract from garlic will help you. It is easy to prepare and very effective. Very often, aphids enter the house when you bring some new plants or even just bouquets of flowers. So before you put a new plant next to the fern, be sure to take a good look at it.
Fern Pests Thrips - This pest primarily affects fern leaves and brown spots and stripes appear on them. When the pest has spread too much, then in addition to spots on the underside of the leaf, black dots also appear. At the same time, fern leaves dry out and fall off very quickly, and this happens because the larvae feed on the sap of the plant.When the insect grows up, it has wings, it flies with ease and affects the rest of the plants in the house. In order to get rid of the pest, and of course it is best to do this at the larval stage, you need to rinse the plant under a powerful stream of running water. Severely affected leaves should definitely be removed.
Schervets - when attacked by this pest, a white bloom appears on the fern, and the leaves become much thinner. In this case, the leaves of the plant must be wiped with a damp cotton pad. After that, rinse the fern with soapy water, and after a day wash off the soap with just running water. Washing the plant must be repeated until the pest dies.
Shield and false shield - when a home fern is damaged by this pest, brown tubercles appear on the leaves, under which the pest is located. The shield justifies its name by its appearance. The color of the insect can be different, if it is light and flat, then this is a scale, and a dark and convex one is a false scale. You can get rid of it only with a medium-hard bristle brush and soapy water. And then all the fern leaves need to be rubbed with walnut infusion, and your plant will be healthy again.
If trouble has happened to your fern, you need to urgently determine what exactly happened to it and immediately treat it. But to reduce the likelihood of an invasion of fern pests or diseases, never forget about prevention.
Fern diseases and pests: how to avoid?