Apple-tree "Bellefleur-Chinese" is quite popular among gardeners, because this autumn apple tree bears tasty and large fruits. Some gardeners mistakenly call other varieties of apple trees Chinese. However, in this article we will talk in more detail about Bellefleur-Chinese - an autumn apple tree.
Apple-tree "Bellefleur-Chinese" - description
The variety was bred a long time ago at the beginning of the 20th century, and immediately began to actively grow in gardens in Russia. The first fruits were taken 6 years after planting.
The author of this plant is the famous breeder Michurin, who bred the variety by crossing the Large-fruited Chinese with the Yellow Bellefleur. As a result of his fruitful labor, the plant became able to grow and adapt to various regions of Russia.
Having become popular, the apple variety began to be grown in Central Russia, the Caucasus, Ukraine and Armenia. Since the apple tree is in autumn, the ripening dates of the fruits are late.
The branches are light brown with some reddish tints. Shoot growth is directed downward. The leaf plates are oval in shape, as well as a gray-green hue. On the surface, the leaves are wrinkled, along the entire edge there are small notches. In relation to the branch, the leaf forms a right angle. Each fruit here weighs about 200 - 300 g. There are also larger fruits. Their shape is flattened and characteristically ribbed. There is information that the fruits of a young tree can reach 500 g.
The peduncle here has a rather small size and a pronounced funnel. Apples ripen with a green rind. However, almost the entire surface of the apple tree is covered with a bright red blush, which is expressed in the form of stripes and strokes. The pulp has a large amount of juice and a white tint. In addition, a very good taste of the pulp is noted. So, one tree of this variety can bear about 70 kg of fruit.
- Belfer Bashkir
It is worth noting here that by crossing this Bellefleur Chinese variety with the equally popular Bashkir handsome variety, an excellent hybrid called Bellefleur Bashkir was obtained.
The variety is also famous and was bred by breeders-scientists. However, the tree is still being tested, but in Tatarstan and Bashkortostan, apple trees are already actively grown by gardeners.
The fruits here are also quite large, more than 200 g. The tree grows quite wide. The spreading crown has the shape of a ball. Basically, this variety is grown commercially and make multiple plantings, keeping a distance of at least 7 meters in the aisle. The plant tolerates frost well, as well as hot, dry summers.
More than 50 kg of fruit can be removed from one tree. 200 centners of the crop are obtained per hectare of planting.
The fruits here are slightly smaller, have the shape of an oval and are not as bright a blush as the parent plants. The taste of the fruit is very sweet here with a bright pronounced aroma. Apples can be harvested at the beginning of autumn, then they retain their appearance and taste very well until the end of winter. At the same time, the fruits tolerate long distances patiently.
In order for the plant to bear fruit, it is necessary to plant other varieties on the site - pollinators that bloom in the same month as this culture.
Apple-tree "Bellefleur-Chinese" - characteristics
The advantages include a fairly large size of the fruit. Ripe, red, large apples look very attractive externally, therefore they are always in demand among buyers.
The advantages also include a rather pleasant taste of the fruit, as well as a large amount of juice. The fruits can be transported over long distances.
In addition to the advantages of Bellefleur-Chinese, they note such disadvantages as insufficient frost resistance, as well as the possibility of being affected by common diseases such as scab and powdery mildew.
Some gardeners celebrate a rather late fruiting, so the harvest has to wait long enough. The amount of harvest here will depend on growing conditions and climatic conditions. In addition, the size of the tree is also a disadvantage.
But, despite the wide variety of varieties and a large list of shortcomings, this culture is still very much in demand at the present time. Breeders continue their work, as a result of which new unique varieties have been obtained, which have even more advantages and fewer disadvantages. Modern varieties of apple trees are able to withstand 40 degrees of frost, and also become resistant to various common diseases, such as scab, powdery mildew and others. The external and taste qualities of the fruits do not lag behind in their properties.
A very large number of varieties with the above advantages were bred with the help of the same Bellefleur Chinese. The most popular of them are Autumn Joy, Altai Velvet, Chosen One and others.
A tree of the Bellefleur-Chinese variety can even reach 10 m. At the same time, the crown is quite spreading and has a wide ball shape. Speaking about the southern territories of Russia, the harvest ripens here, of course, earlier.
The tree is capable of producing a fairly large amount of harvest. However, after 20 years, the amount of the crop increases sharply, but the size of the fruit also changes - it becomes smaller.
Scientists estimate the taste of the fruit at 4.6 points. However, many disagree with such a low estimate, since they note that the fruits are very sweet, as well as sweet juice in large quantities. The fruits of this variety are characterized by a very pleasant, pronounced aroma.
The tree begins to bear fruit 5 or 6 years after planting. Sometimes these terms are shifted even further.
The apple tree begins to bloom in late spring. The finished crop is harvested in early September. At the same time, apples can be stored for a long time, retaining their external and taste properties, and also do not fall off and can stay on the branch for a long time.
Apples can be stored until the beginning of winter or even until the new year. However, these fruits should be kept separate from other fruits, as apples actively release ethylene.
Fruits are mainly formed on fruit twigs and biennial shoots. After the tree is 20 years old, it begins to yield the maximum amount of harvest.
- Frost resistant
This tree has a very high frost resistance, which is why the plant is so popular among gardeners. This advantage allows you to grow plants even in those regions that are characterized by severe winters. However, scientists have found that in areas where the frost is too severe, trees can freeze.
Diseases and pests
The plant can be infected with scab, especially when it comes to rainy summers. Mainly the fruits of the plant are damaged, less often the leaves. In addition to scab, the tree can be susceptible to other diseases common to apple trees.
Apple-tree "Bellefleur-Chinese": reviews
Taking into account the reviews of gardeners, it can be noted that the tree is very large, and its fruits are very tasty. At the same time, the tree yields a harvest quite steadily. A lot can be made from the fruits of this culture of blanks, such as jam, compote and jam.
In addition, gardeners who grow this variety on their site have already adapted and carry out preventive treatments against various diseases. In addition, they note that if this plant is grafted onto a frost-resistant variety, then the culture will winter well in the cold months.
Apple-tree "Bellefleur-Chinese": planting
The optimal time for planting is spring, or rather the end of April. Some still plant the plant in the fall, after all the leaves have already fallen, and the tree has about a month to adapt before winter.
First of all, you need to first choose the right place for planting, where there will be loamy or sandy loam soil. The tree grows poorly on heavy soil. The landing site should be open enough, sunny and well-lit. Also, air must circulate well here in order to prevent the development of fungal diseases.
In addition, you should carefully consider the choice of a seedling. You should buy planting material only in proven nurseries and choose those specimens that are more than 2 years old. In this case, the root system should be sufficiently branched and without signs of disease and damage. Having bought a seedling, be sure to wrap the root system in some kind of damp cloth or place it in a bag filled with wet sawdust. If you do not plant immediately, then the seedling must be dug in. And before planting the plant, it is necessary to place the root system in a clay chatterbox. They differ slightly in price, but have many advantages of seedlings with a closed root system.
The planting hole is prepared in the fall, about 14-20 days before planting, and also if you are going to plant the plant in the spring. Organic fertilizers must be added to the planting pit, which are perfect compost, humus or ash, as well as superphosphate. When preparing the planting pit, it is necessary to focus on the size of the root system, but it must be spacious enough - about a meter in diameter and at least half a meter in depth. Also, the size of the planting pit will be affected by the composition of the soil. If your soil is sandy, you should add clay. And if the soil is clay, then on the contrary, you should add peat or sand.
After the seedling is planted, it should be watered immediately with abundant water and a sufficiently thick layer of mulch should be laid out. In this case, it is necessary to control that the root collar is at least 4 cm above the ground level. It is necessary to install a support and tie up a young tree. If you are planting multiple specimens, a distance of about 4 m between crops should be maintained. Since the tree is self-fertile, there must be other varieties on the site - pollinators. The best option would be Brown striped, Autumn striped, Antonovka and others.
Apple-tree "Bellefleur-Chinese": care
In order for the tree to grow well, develop and bear fruit, and also be resistant to diseases common for apple trees and calmly tolerate low temperatures in winter, the plant should be treated with copper-containing preparations and fungicides from time to time for preventive purposes. Bordeaux mixture, copper oxychloride and ready-made preparations are well suited. Insecticides are used against insect pests.
In addition, you should loosen the ground and lay out a mulching layer. The tree needs to be watered as it dries, especially when it comes to a young plant. Like any garden tree, the apple tree needs feeding.
Fertilization with potassium-containing and phosphorus-containing preparations will help to increase resistance to various fungal diseases. Also, before the winter period, you should take care of the shelter of the tree trunk from rodents.
A mandatory event is the formation of the crown of the tree.This will help not only maintain an average crown size, but also help to cope with various fungal pathogens. After planting, after 2-3 years, crown formation can begin, which is usually carried out in early spring, before sap flow begins. It is imperative to remove dry and damaged branches.
It is also necessary to form the main branches in such a way that the crown is rarefied, so that air can freely penetrate to each fruit, as well as sunlight. Pruning tools must be sharp and disinfected. After trimming, it is necessary to process all sections with garden varnish or use paint.
Also, experts recommend grafting varieties that are resistant to frost on this plant. However, in addition to grafting, the plant can be grown from seed.
- Growing regions
As for the growing regions, this variety is actively in demand in the Central Black Earth Region, Ukraine, Armenia and the North Caucasus. However, at present, the variety is most often cultivated in the North Caucasus, as well as in the southern regions. There the tree is grown as a summer plant.
In the Moscow region, this plant is grown as an autumn variety. However, the yield here is slightly less than when grown in the North Caucasus. Scientists suggest growing plants here, grafting onto more frost-resistant plants.
In the Urals, the Bashkir Bellefleur is more often grown, since the plant develops well in these climatic conditions, as well as in the Siberian region.
Apple-tree "Bellefleur-Chinese" is an excellent option for cultivation in many regions, as it requires completely ordinary care and has large fruit sizes. The apples taste very juicy and sweet.