Phacelia or mustard as green manure - which is better?
Siderata are equated with more effective fertilizing materials of natural origin. They are planted next to key plants or in a free area. Then the grown greens are cut off and embedded in the ground. Such a moment enriches the earth with nitrogenous compounds, slows down the growth of weeds, fungi and bacteria stop developing. They are quite often used by gardeners who adhere to bio methods of plant care. Siderat is an excellent substitute for chemicals.
Varieties of siderates
The most commonly used are hydrophiles and cruciferous plants. It is most common to use mustard and phacelia when planting.
Advice: Green manure plants need to be mowed periodically until flowers form, so that they do not grow throughout the site.
The impact of green manure on soil varieties
Siderat does the following positive actions for soils:
- Soil enrichment with all kinds of elements and organics;
- Improving the characteristics and composition of the soil;
- Increasing the permeability of moisture and air;
- Prevention of erosion.
For certain types of soil, they act in different ways, changing its structure and the level of acid content in it.
Experienced gardeners believe that the soil should be in constant work, so green manure can be planted with plant crops, as well as after harvesting them.
- Legumes planted in absolutely any land in structure. They free the planting space from nematodes, the weed stops growing, the soil becomes light and saturated with nitrogenous bases. These fertilizing materials are similar in their positive effects to fresh manure.
- Cereals can live in any soil, even in loam or soil with a lot of sand. This culture allows better penetration of liquids into the soil, as a result, there are more nitrogenous and potassium compounds in the soil, and the likelihood of erosion decreases. Better these green manure plants take root in soil with a significant acid content. Along the way, they still stop the growth of weeds. Cereals have a very long root system that grows in different directions, so weeds cannot break through it.
- Cruciferous plants improve the quality characteristics of any soil. In soil with a high acid content, the plant does not take root. The root system naturally loosens the soil, they have a beautiful and large green mass. They saturate neighboring plants with phosphorus elements, which are very difficult to produce, thanks to which other useful elements are not washed out of the soil. Rape is considered picky about the conditions, as it grows disgustingly in poor and excessively moist soil, which contains a large amount of acid. Rapeseed, mustard and radish are not planted near cabbage, since they have a general incompatibility. If they are planted together, then most likely there will be no cabbage this year.
- Hydrophiles - these are siderates that actively fight weeds and bacteria. These plants improve soil aeration. The soil becomes light, the acid level decreases.
- Buckwheat plants enrich the soil with useful substances such as phosphorus and potassium. The soil is getting lighter. Buckwheat is considered an excellent ripper.
- Amaranth loosens the soil, the soil becomes more fertile.
When phacelia and mustard are planted
It is a popular green manure among farmers. The plant is planted from spring to autumn. In spring, green manure is planted after thawing of the snow masses, because the plant culture is afraid of frost. From the moment of planting the seed until the fruit is fully ripe, it takes about 45-60 days. After plowing and mowing, the main plants can be planted after 14 days. The green mass grows very quickly, young plants get a little shade, the weed stops growing.
Important: When mustard foliage grows to the tops of other plants, then it must be trimmed.
In summer, it is best to plant mustard next to tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, as they do not ripen so soon. Also, the plant can be planted next to potatoes, since mustard fights late blight and scab.
Before the winter period, green manure is planted in early autumn after harvesting all the fruits. The greens of the plant are cut only in the spring. Then it can be simply laid on the ground, as it will be absorbed very quickly by the soil.
The seed is placed in rows with a distance of 15 cm between the rows, it can also be planted randomly.
This is a unique plant culture, next to which other cultivated plants feel great. Phacelia is not demanding in care, is resistant to drought and cold, has a beautiful appearance, and has an active growth rate. Seed is planted in the spring after the snow has melted. Phacelia grows on sandy, clay, peat and rocky soil. Siderat protect the land from the aggressive effects of frost. The plant has the ability to loosen compacted soil, strengthen light soil, and reduce soil acidity.
Important: The plant has a great advantage - it attracts a large number of pollinating insects.
Phacelia tissues contain phytoncidal compounds that prevent the spread of bacteria and fungi in the soil, as well as late blight and scab. Siderat repels moths, aphids, nematodes and wireworms. When phacelia blooms, the greens are cut off 1.5 months after sowing. The green mass must be repaired 10 cm deep. When planting seed, green manure is not removed, since it is able to protect crops from wind and cold snaps. A little later, it is cut off and used as mulch.
What are siderates effective against?
Greenery acts as an active and quick treatment.
For example, you can plant next to potatoes, which can ward off the attacks of Colorado. You can also plant calendula between the rows, which will scare away the pest.
After the potatoes, rye can be planted on the ridges, which will stop the appearance of the nematode. The plant will also inhibit the growth of weeds.
If you plant radish and mustard, then they will neutralize the soil from unfavorable microorganisms. Weed grass will not grow.
To defeat rot, oats or phacelia can be planted next to the plants. Also, the latter culture is suitable for combating late blight.
If you plant dill or marigolds next to strawberries, then the aroma of these plants will scare away parasitic insects. Marigolds act as a deterrent to nematodes. Their aroma also scares off Colorado, flea beetles, bedbugs, aphids and a bear.
If you plant lupine, it will protect the plant from root rot, potato scab, and nematodes.
For example, a plant such as sweet clover will protect crops from nematodes, wireworms, root rot. Mowing green plants will improve the quality of the soil. Melilot also attracts pollinating insects.
Alfalfa will delight worms and various microorganisms that are in the soil with its antiseptic substances, and for weeds and nematodes, they will be like poison. The plant feeds its neighbors with useful elements, stops the growth of weeds.
Planting time of deterrent crops
Siderat is usually planted year-round, they have short growing periods, so during the year you can have about 4 harvests of greens.
- In the spring greenery of plants grows rapidly, weed grass is difficult to develop. Most often, sweet clover, radish, phacelia, alfalfa, mustard and other plants are planted during this period.
- In September and summer, after harvesting, in order to restore the health and fertility of the soil, green manures such as mustard, colza, radish, rapeseed, phacelia are planted.
- In the last month of autumn, rye, winter oats, cereals, lupine, clover, phacelia are usually planted. You can also plant mustard, radish, rapeseed, but it is not mowed in order to save the plants from freezing in winter.
How to choose a landing site
The seat is selected depending on the needs.
- Very often, crops are planted in an empty space, which is prepared in advance, feeding and enriching the composition of the soil.
- In the spring, green manure plants are planted before planting seedlings. In the summer, after harvesting the fruits, it is planted so that the beds are not empty. If you plant radish or mustard around the beds, for example, they will scare away harmful insects.
- The best option is the planting of green manure between the rows. This will make the weeds stop actively growing. The soil will not crumble from the effects of rain and wind. After cutting the plant, mulch the soil near the trunk with the material.
- Green manure crops are planted in the near-stem zone. Plants will not only be a decoration, but will also become mulch, which after mowing will nourish the plants and will not allow moisture to quickly disappear.
Combination of siderates with different cultures
- Greenery for tomatoes
These plants improve the soil, loosening it, enriching it with nitrogen and minerals, and reducing the growth of weeds. Most often, phacelia is planted with tomatoes, as it will help prevent the growth of weeds, the decomposition of foliage and stems occurs at a rapid pace. And the appearance of the plant is very attractive and eye-catching. You can also plant any beans, grains (oats, rye, wheat) and cruciferous plants.
- Greenery for cucumbers
The roots of the main plant do not sink to a depth; it is difficult for cucumbers to extract useful elements in deeper layers of soil. The main role of green manure is the delivery and distribution of micronutrients and macronutrients to the plant. Most suitable plants: legumes - vetch, peas, chickpeas, alfalfa, clover. Cereals – wheat, barley and oats. Cruciferous crops - mustard, rape, rapeseed. These plants are planted between rows of cucumbers to get the best results.
- Greenery for cabbage
This vegetable loves soil that is saturated with nitrogen compounds. It is best to plant lupines, peas, clover, sweet clover and alfalfa nearby, which will enrich the neighboring plant. If you combine a phacelia with lupine and clover next to it, then wireworms, nematodes and other pests will stop attacking. If you plant oats and sweet clover between the rows, the plants will not be disturbed by pathogenic microorganisms.
- Greenery for potatoes
The most important thing is that the vegetable crop is not attacked by harmful insects and various diseases. Potatoes get along best with flax - linen. Borage plants - phacelia. Legumes - lupines, beans, beans and clover. Cruciferous - rapeseed, mustard and radish.
Several green manure plants are most often planted with potatoes. It is best to plant barley or oats with peas. When planting mustard and phacelia, you can get rid of the wireworm. But when planting cereals, there will be the opposite effect - the number of wireworms will increase. As a fertilizer, you can plant vetch, honey clover and alfalfa.
Siderata and main plants should be from different families, since if they are similar, they will transmit different diseases to each other.
Green manure harvesting
Greens can be pruned before flowering begins. Phacelia, clover and lupine can be left on the ridges for longer as they attract pollinating insects. The grains must be removed after they are fully grown. The stems of the plant are used as mulch, the seed material can be used in the future. The beans are cut after harvest.
If green manure plants grow between rows, then you need to remove them in time, until they have grown higher than the main plants, otherwise the crops will grow slowly.
It is necessary to plow the tops of plants into the ground a couple of weeks before planting the seedlings. They are deepened into light soil by 13 cm. In dense soil by 7 cm.
Plowing is also carried out before the beginning of the winter period. It is necessary to cut off the green manure leaves and stems and dig up the top layer of the soil. The green mass will rot and become humus. For rapid ripening, plant residues are irrigated with medicinal solutions.
The plan for sowing green manure plants is considered in advance at the beginning of autumn. You need to carefully examine the planting site and choose the plants for planting.