Apple tree Orlovsky pioneer
A garden plot with fruit trees is a perennial monoculture, which must be looked after in the following way: correct soil treatment; feed and prune apple trees; use pesticides wisely. Thanks to these agricultural techniques, the tree will grow and develop well, and its immunity to diseases and resistance to harmful insects will also increase. A complex of agrotechnical procedures will allow, with less spending on prevention, 100% to obtain a generous yield, while reducing the negative impact on the environment. In this article we will consider the apple tree "Orlovsky Pioneer".
Apple tree Orlovsky pioneer: description and characteristics
Apple tree Orlovsky pioneer: photo of the variety
The apple tree Orlovskiy pioneer is a high quality autumn variety, which was obtained in 1976 by such scientists as: E. Sedov, Z. Serova, V. Zhdanov, Yu. Khabarov at the All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crops Breeding.
- During the hybridization of the varieties Antonovka Krasnobochka and SR0523, the hybrid novelty variety inherited the Vm gene, which determines the immunity to scab.
- In 1985, the variety was assigned to the elite, and after the state test was carried out, the culture was recommended for cultivation in the Russian Center.
- The apple variety Orlovsky Pioneer is unpretentious, gives good yields of delicious fruits, so it has become widespread in the Russian Center, in the Ukrainian and Belarusian territories.
Features of the variety.
The apple-tree Orlovsky pioneer is well adapted to the climate of Central European latitudes, gives high yields, bears early fruit, the ripeness of fruits is average.
Pros and cons.
Possesses good resistance to diseases, out of 5 races of scab, resistance to 4 was noted; bears fruit every year; apples are excellent marketable.
Because apple trees have good immunity to scab, they do not need to be treated with pesticides without fail, which means that it is less costly to care for them.
Cons: Orlovskiy pioneer apples become smaller if the tree is incorrectly cut or overloaded with fruits.
The tree is distinguished by a high level of resistance to the winter season, namely: to sharp jumps in temperature conditions, to prolonged thaws, to dryness in winter.
Yield indicator, tasting assessment.
Harvesting begins in the last days of August. The fruits are firmly held on the branches, so they can be removed until the November days. If you properly care for an apple tree, then it can bring up to seventy to seventy-five kg of fruit.
The record harvest was obtained in 1991, it amounted to four hundred ninety-five centners per hectare, the average figure is two hundred and thirty-five centners per hectare. Apples are perfectly kept cool and in the dark until December days, without losing their properties. The tasting score was 4.3 points out of 5.
Features of a tree and apples Orlovsky pioneer
The tree grows moderately, the annual growth is sixty cm, upward the apple tree reaches three to three and a half meters. The crown is rounded, medium dense.
The bases of the main branches are horizontal to the soil, the tips are directed upward. The bark is gray, smooth.
The shoots of the Orlovsky pioneer apple tree are covered with a brownish bark, they are thickened and smooth, slightly pubescent.Over the years, ringlets are formed on them, which are fruit branches, shortened, having nodules in the form of rings.
The buds are small, pressed against the branches, conical, the surface is slightly pubescent. The flower buds are long, slightly pubescent.
The leaves are smooth, elongated, glossy. The leaf plate is of medium size, the edges are wavy, the apex is slightly twisted.
The flowers are light pink in color, the buds are more intense pink, the pistil is located under the anthers. The tree is pollinated in a cross way.
Orlovsky pioneer apples are round, slightly flattened, of medium size. Ripe fruits weigh one hundred twenty to one hundred and forty grams. The color of the fruit is greenish (when stored, it turns light yellow), on the sides there are a large number of red stripes, under them a pink blush spreads. The internal content of the apples is greenish in color, the taste is pleasant, sweet-sour, juicy, and the aromatic properties are weak.
Apple tree Orlovsky pioneer: planting
Apple tree Orlovsky pioneer: photo of the variety
For quick survival of the variety in the garden, it is required to choose the place and time of planting correctly. It is recommended to plant the plant early in the spring or in the autumn season in the last days of September (thirty days before the cold snap) so that the seedlings will successfully root.
Apple tree The Oryol pioneer loves light, for this reason, in the shade, it can stretch out, and the lower branches become bare. For planting, a site with a low passage of groundwater is selected: if the waters are up to two and a half meters deep, then the death of the apple tree is inevitable.
Plants of medium vigor are planted according to a five-by-five meter pattern.
Landing is carried out in the holes. Dimensions: depth - up to eighty cm, diameter - one hundred cm. The surface soil layer is mixed with two or three buckets of humus, potassium salt (one hundred fifty grams), with superphosphate (one kg). Nitrogen and lime are not applied, because the root system can be burned by these fertilizers.
When planting an apple tree, 0.5 buckets of water are poured into the hole. When planting, the soil is compacted in such a way that the root collar is five to six cm above the surface soil layer. Then another bucket of water is poured out.
After planting a one-year-old seedling, it will begin to bear fruit for the first time from the sixth year. Any apple variety that blooms at the same time is suitable for pollination.
How to trim and shape the crown
The first time a seedling is cut in the spring season.
How to form a stem.
- To form a stem, at a height of forty to sixty cm, we find a well-developed bud, giving 1 main branch, the lower buds are removed.
- Then another thirty to forty cm is measured upwards, a developed kidney is determined, which is directed in the opposite direction, we leave it.
- Then thirty-forty cm is measured again, we find 3 kidney. It should differ in direction from 1 and 2 kidneys. The extra kidneys are removed.
- The main guide is formed for the next spring season. It should exceed the skeletal branches by fifteen to twenty cm.
- When cutting further, in order to form the main branches, the buds, which are directed on different sides, are left every thirty to forty cm. The formed crown should have six to seven main branches. The height of the tree is limited to three to three and a half meters.
An adult tree needs supportive pruning, and the crown should also be thinned with age.
For this purpose, complete or partial removal of perennial branches is carried out, thanks to this, lateral branches located in the neighborhood will grow well.
This type of pruning contributes to: compactness of the crown, increasing the immunity of apple trees to diseases, increasing the yield and the qualitative composition of the fruits.
The branches are cut off for three to four years in adult apple trees. Sections are processed with garden varnish.
After cutting, the tree becomes weaker, in this regard, it is required to take good care of it: water, feed, loosen the soil.
Apple tree Oryol pioneer: leaving
Apple Orlovsky pioneer: photo of the variety
In the first two to three years after feeding the seedling, fertilizers are not applied. In the future, in every spring season, the tree is fertilized with ammonium nitrate (ten to twenty grams per square meter). In the first summer month, liquid nitrogenous fertilizer is applied, ammonium nitrate (thirty to forty grams) is diluted in ten liters of water.
From the second half of the summer season, phosphorus and potassium are introduced under the trees (two to three glasses of ash per square meter).
In the autumn season, organic matter is laid in the ground (two to four kg per square).
For old apple trees with developed roots in the autumn, furrows are dug around the crown circumference by twenty to thirty cm, in depth - by forty cm.In them are introduced: one bucket of humus, fifty grams of superphosphate, thirty grams of potassium sulfate, then the furrows are closed with soil.
In the spring season and in the first summer days, ammonium nitrate is introduced, the solution is poured into the furrows (thirty to forty grams are diluted in ten liters of water).
Apple tree Orlovsky pioneer: reviews
Alena, Moscow region: “Pros: Abundant fruiting, good fruit taste. There are no downsides. For a long time, I studied photographs and characteristics of the Orlovsky pioneer apple variety on the Internet. I got it and dropped it off at my summer cottage. In the fifth year, the first harvest has already appeared, the taste of the fruit is very juicy, the collection of fruits can be carried out already in the last summer days. My family liked the apples. I liked that the apple tree bears fruit every year, so we always have apples. I collect carrion on August and autumn days, dry it, it turns out delicious. The harvest is stored in the basement, thanks to which we have a supply of vitamins until the first days of winter. The keeping quality of the fruit is good, there is no wrinkling, no loss of marketability and taste. We not only eat fresh fruits, but also prepare delicious jams and marmalades. I recommend this apple tree to everyone. In the winter season, we prepare compote from fruits. "
Alexander, Bryansk region: “The apple variety Orlovsky Pioneer is my favorite variety. Advantages: ease of care, immunity to diseases. There are no downsides. In the spring season, I bought a seedling of the Orlovsky Pioneer variety. I bought it in the nursery, because everything is fair there. I remember these apples since childhood, they have a pleasant taste, juiciness, slightly sour. I already have one old apple tree growing in my garden, so I decided to change it. I am an amateur gardener, I follow all agrotechnical rules. Therefore, my apple trees are healthy, they bear fruit perfectly. The plant bore forty-five kilograms of fruit that year. I also liked the fact that fruiting is annual, uninterrupted and stable. It is comfortable to shoot the harvest, because the tree is small in size, and its crown is competently formed. I was pleased with the immunity of the variety to scab, in this regard, it is not required to spray with chemicals. "
Roman, Ryazan region: “Great variety, always good yields. Pros: ease of care, immunity to diseases. There are no downsides. A whole apple orchard of this variety grows in my summer cottage. The yield is plentiful, it is enough for the family to eat and put it on the market for sale. People like it. The apple variety Orlovsky Pioneer is old, so most people know the taste of these fruits from childhood. Fruit juiciness, their sweet and sour taste, good storage until winter days. I myself do inoculation of this variety on apple varieties that are of lower value. The growth of apple trees is fast, fruiting begins from the sixth year. The shadow turns out to be excellent, you can arrange yourself a rest in the garden. We subject the carrion to drying, which is good to disappear.Apple trees Orlovsky pioneer are undemanding to care, so feel free to plant them in your summer cottage, they get sick in rare cases, and bear fruit annually. "
Apple tree Orlovsky pioneer: photo of the variety
Apple tree Orlovsky pioneer is an old, popular and adored variety of domestic gardeners.
Although the apple tree of the Orlovsky Pioneer variety has few drawbacks, for many decades it has been extremely well spoken about and thanks to the authors.