Apple tree Nastenka
The apple tree Nastenka has not yet been included in the State Register. This will happen after passing government and production tests. Difficult climatic regions are suitable for this new Ural apple variety: it is undemanding to heat, but in terms of fruit size and keeping quality it can compete with apple trees bred for the southern regions and central part of Russia.
Apple tree Nastenka: variety description and characteristics
Apple tree Nastenka: photo of the variety
The apple tree of the Nastenka variety is considered a winter variety. Despite the fact that the fruits ripen by September and by this time we can say that the technical ripeness of the fruits has come, the apples are hard and sour.
It should be remembered that Nastenka's apple variety should be harvested on time in order to better preserve the fruits. If you are late with this, then the storage period decreases.
Nastenka's apples ripen up to several months. In December, their taste is revealed in full force. If the fruits are harvested on time and stored in the right conditions, they can last until the month of March.
Apple tree Nastenka is an excellent variety that allows you not to experience a lack of vitamins in winter, when there is a shortage of plant foods.
A good harvest of ripe healthy apples of the Nastenka variety guarantees proper care of the plant in the spring.
Usually they talk not about a free-standing apple tree, but about an apple orchard. And this is no coincidence: after all, single apple trees, as a rule, do not bear fruit. It is interesting that apple flowers - with pistils and stamens, male and female components (they are dioecious), but self-pollinating varieties are quite rare.
"Nastenka" does not have the ability to self-pollinate, she needs apple-pollinating trees. For fruits to form, it is necessary for Nastenka to be pollinated from the pollen of the pollinator. There are no recommendations for choosing a specific apple pollinator variety. As a rule, it can be an autumn or winter variety (summer variety is not suitable). When choosing a pollinator variety, it is also important to pay attention to the timing of flowering and the time of fruit appearance: they should be similar to Nastenka's timing.
For pollination to be successful, pollinating apple trees should be located at a distance not exceeding 50 m from Nastenka. In this case, you are guaranteed a high yield.
About the appearance of the variety
Apple variety Nastenka is a vigorous plant. Nastenka's powerful trunk has a brown scaly bark. The apple tree has high growth and large branches, and the dark green leaves are sparsely arranged and oblique. The shape of the crown is pyramidal. Fruiting on ringlets. The apples are attached with short stalks.
The shape of the fruit is round, conical, the average weight is 100 grams, the maximum is 180 g, the color is deep red.
The attractiveness of the appearance of the apple variety Nastenka is indisputable. The greenish apples are removed, but over time they ripen and the pulp becomes white and juicy.
The composition contains a lot of ascorbic acid (up to 25 mg / 100 g), which is very beneficial for health. Evaluation of the palatability of the variety is 3.5 on a 5-point scale. Apples are sour-sweetish. According to the taste, opinions of gardeners vary: from undersaturated, unexpressed, simple to sour-tart.
It should be added that the apple tree Nastenka was bred with the help of an astringent, widespread variety in the Urals - Anis Purple.
On the history of breeding
The apple tree Nastenka was bred in Sverdlovsk (the place of hatching is the Sverdlovsk gardening station).The author is a well-known breeder, the Ural wizard L. Kotov, who turned 85 in 2014.
The apple tree Nastenka was obtained by pollination of the variety "Angis purple" with a mixture of pollen from the varieties "Rainbow" and "Samotsvet". The main task was to bring out a variety with high winter hardiness, productivity, with the ability to grow an apple tree in the Ural region.
In case of prolonged rains, the variety in question is prone to scab infestation. Of course, it prefers a dry climate, which is characteristic of the south or center of the Urals.
The main place where the Apple tree Nastenka is grown is the Sverdlovsk region, but also the Perm, Omsk, Chelyabinsk, Udmurt, Bashkiria, the Republic of Mari El.
Gardeners of the Volgo-Vyatka region (Nizhny Novgorod, Kirov regions and the Republic of Tatarstan) also fell in love with this variety, since it easily adapts in a temperate climate.
It should be emphasized that the danger for Nastenka apple trees is not a low temperature, but an overestimated humidity.
For a decent harvest, choose a planting site wisely.
Apple tree Nastenka: planting and care
Apple tree Nastenka: photo of the variety
It is important to understand that the properties of taste and quality of apples directly depend on the conditions where apple trees are grown.
If these are lowlands, where there is a lot of water, it is difficult for an apple tree to take root. A shady place is also not suitable. Choose the hilly eastern part of the site so that the apple trees are not disturbed by the western Ural wind. You should also avoid acidic soils.
After choosing a landing site, they begin to engage in a hole: they dig a deep hole up to half a meter deep. Mix the soil and organic fertilizer removed and sprinkle this mixture in the middle of the hole.
If the soil is sandy, then it is worth adding a little clay with plant residues.
Important to rememberthat it is impossible to completely fill up the root collar, it should look three centimeters above the soil surface. After planting, water it abundantly (3 buckets / 1 tree).
Fruiting of Nastenka's apple tree begins at about the fifth or sixth year. In winter, it is necessary to protect young plants (it is best to cover with pine branches).
The apple variety Nastenka is quite winter-hardy, low temperatures (up to minus 45) are not a problem for him.
The golden rule of high yield, suitable for any variety is: "How much we give - we collect so much!"
Apple trees are fed 2 times a year (in spring and autumn) with natural fertilizers: humus or manure. As soon as the first spring sun appears and the snowdrifts melt, apple trees must be whitened and cleaned of pests. Watering is necessary during the growth process. On the advice of experienced gardeners, it is important to engage in crown formation and remove dry dead branches and lateral growths.
The harvest time is mid-September.
The yield of this variety is high, however, not every year. This seems to be the main disadvantage of the variety. "Nastenka" is a rather demanding variety, and constant care is needed, since due to diseases and illiterate growth conditions, yield decreases.
About diseases and pests of the apple tree Nastenka
The main challenge for breeders when breeding any apple tree is scab resistance. And this very important indicator of the vitality of the apple tree “Nastenka turned out to be low.
In case of prolonged rains, the apple variety Nastenka is prone to scab infestation. When attacked by this disease, the plant covers the fungus, leaves and fruits become covered with black spots. Rot also affects apples.
Disease prevention is carried out in the summer by sprinkling a 7% solution with urea on fallen leaves.
Attacks of aphids, apple moths, and moths are also dangerous for apple orchards. Celandine, garlic, conifers (decoctions) will help fight them.
Leaves curl from aphids, and a reddish tint appears.
Caterpillars are the main danger from apple moths.External manifestations of the disease: rolling of leaves, a brown color appears on the leaves. As a struggle - the collection of spider nests, treatment with insecticides.
In drought and heat, there is a possibility of an attack by a moth, which simply eats a large number of apples. Wormwood helps to fight it.
Quite often, attacks of hawthorn and various silkworms, fruit sapwood are possible on the apple orchard. Preventive measures are needed here. In the event of an attack by these pests, spraying with wormwood or tomato tops (decoctions) is necessary.
In general, the apple variety Nastenka is unpretentious, frost-resistant, feels great in a ventilated, sunny place. Fruiting occurs in the 5th or 6th year, yields harvests in a year. Nastenka's apples are perfectly stored, at this time the fruits ripen, and then delight with their sweetish-sour aftertaste until the beginning of spring.