Apple tree "Medunitsa", variety description, photos, reviews
A brief excursion into history
Perfectly bearing fruit "Medunitsa" apple-tree of summer ripening period seems to be specially created for those who love sweet apples.
The cultivation of apples of the "Medunitsa" variety began in the thirties of the twentieth century. The "pioneer" of this activity is the famous Soviet scientist, biologist, professor S.I. Isaev. I must say "thank you" to him for the birth of more than forty varieties that are resistant to the winter period and diseases. Breeding work on breeding varieties with high immunity was the main priority of S.I. Isaev. Medunitsa is a hybrid of Welsea and Striped Cinnamon. The name "Medunitsa" did not come from the honey taste, as most people think. In general, where do the legs grow from: the scientist called his wife the word "Medunitsa", in honor of the popular first spring flower. And then he named his variety in honor of his wife. At times, the variety is given the name "Medovitsa". By the way, for breeding work in relation to this variety, the professor was awarded the Stalin Prize in the mid-fifties. Today the apple tree "Medunitsa" is still not listed in the State Register, but it is still a favorite for most Russian gardeners.
Apple tree "Medunitsa": description of the variety (tree, leaves, fruits)
The characteristic features of the variety will make it clear what are the differences in terms of the characteristics of the tree, apples in comparison with other varieties; what are the advantages and disadvantages it has.
Wood. High growth variety. The apple tree "Medunitsa" can grow up to 6-7 meters (on seed stock). The skeleton of the crown in natural conditions is in the form of a pyramid, sparse. The apple tree is good in latitude and has many leaves. According to statistics, the shoots are average. The combination of medium shoot ability and tree height requires special pruning so that the tree develops normally and at the same time the apples ripen.
Leaves. Basically, the color of the crown is green, light. Shoots are light brown in color. Leaves are round, elongated, often yellowish. The plates are slightly curved.
Fruit. Summer variety. Medium sized apples. Fruit weight - up to 150 g. The apples are round and regular. You can see the fruit and the conical shape. Fruit color is yellow-green, with bright orange-red stripes. When the fruit is fully ripe, it may become all red and remain yellow with a large ruddy spot. At the same time, the stripes remain pronounced. In terms of taste, our variety belongs to the sweet varieties of apple trees. Sugar content - 14% or more. The acid content is low. The tasting rating of a fully ripe apple is 4.3-4.7 b / 5. The internal contents of the fruit are juicy, the density is good. The aroma and taste of the fruit are strongly pronounced, with a slight honey flavor.
Why is the taste of the variety unique? Because the apple tree can easily grow in cold climates. A feature of apple trees growing in the middle lane is a high level of fruit acid. "Medunitsa" is one of the "excellent", because it has the most unique taste for apple trees from the central and northern stripes.
Apple tree "Medunitsa": characteristics
Fruiting. On a seed stock, the variety begins to bear fruit in the fifth or sixth year of its development. And the apple tree is actively yielding for 50 years or more. Each year the tree bears fruit for the first 13-16 years.After this time, fruit setting should be normalized if you want to harvest annually.
Usually the crop is harvested in the 15th of August and the first days of September (middle lane). Under natural conditions, an uneven ripening of apples occurs, due to the fact that there are too many leaves on the shoots, because of this, the fruits suffer from a lack of illumination. By the way, there is an important fatty plus of the variety - the apples do not crumble, they can remain ripe on the branches for a long time.
Flowering and pollination. A self-pollinated variety, but it is still better to plant a number of helper pollinators. The choice of companions occurs according to the timing of flowering. Our variety blooms in the last days of May until the 15th of June. The term depends on the climate in which the apple tree grows. Excellent helpers for pollination: "Cinnamon striped", "Victory", "Anis Sverdlovsky", Chinese women "Gold", "Kerr".
Storing fruit. If the harvest takes place in a state of technical ripeness, then apples are stored for 3-4 months; if the fruits were removed fully ripe, then they are stored for a month, no more. Another highlight of the variety is the change in taste over time. The bright aroma and taste of honey remain intact for 14 days after removing the fruit from the apple tree.
Winter resistance. Frost resistance is one of the main valuable qualities of the variety. Yablona does not care about severe frosts and frosts. "Medunitsa" grows well in the Urals and Siberia, the declared signs remain unchanged.
Disease immunity. During the breeding of the Medunitsa variety, the scab attacked the apple trees. It was during the selection of the variety we were considering that the goal was set - to bring out an apple tree with increased immunity to scab. This task has been accomplished. That is why most gardeners believe that the variety will never get sick with this fungal disease. In addition, this information appears in many popular publications. But, as we know, information becomes obsolete over time, new diseases appear, to which adult varieties do not have resistance. It is for this reason that "Medunitsa" in any way needs scab prevention.
Cons of the variety: you need to prune to limit growth, and so that the apple tree gives fruit in a timely manner; when the tree becomes adult, you need to ration the harvest every year; the crop is not stored for long; fruits ripen at different times; unique taste is lost during storage. But do not be upset: any minus can be translated into a plus if you take proper care of the apple tree. The characteristics of the variety can be well changed by choosing a plant on a clonal rootstock.
Types of rootstocks and varieties
When you buy a seedling, be sure to check what rootstock it is on, because it depends on: growth, size, "appearance" of the tree; the timing when the apple tree will begin to bear fruit and ripen; apple planting scheme; how long the apple tree will bear fruit and live.
Seed type. Our seed variety can bear fruit every year for 50-60 years. The life span of an apple tree can be 80-90 years. Naturally, such good performance requires good grooming and regular regulatory circumcision.
Signs of the "Medunitsa" variety on a seed stock: an apple tree can grow up to 6-7 meters; begins to bear fruit in the fifth or sixth year of life; the minimum spacing for planting should be 4.5 meters. The crowns should not touch each other too much, therefore, it is desirable that the interval generally be 5-6 meters, to be sure.
Semi-dwarf type. Professionals advise to purchase varieties of high growth on a semi-dwarf rootstock. It is very convenient to look after "Medunitsa" on this rootstock and remove fruits from it. Compared to normal height, the growth of the tree will be much lower, and the apple tree will begin to bear fruit earlier. Signs: height 4-4.5 meters; the apple tree begins to bear fruit at 3.5-4.5 years of age; the interval distance for planting is at least 3 meters. The landing pattern is 4 × 3 m.The highlight of the variety on a semi-dwarf rootstock is that it can grow where groundwater is very close. This fact is explained by the fact that "Medunitsa" can easily survive short-term waterlogging. The stock makes this feature stronger.
Dwarf and columnar type. Oh, this fashion for minimalism! She did not pass by the gardeners, she came into her own recently. Small trees are very comfortable and beautiful. Although "Medunitsa" has the usual shape - the shape of a pyramid, a low apple tree can have the shape of a ball or a triangle. The crown will form gradually, this will not harm fruiting. Signs: height 1.5-2 meters; the tree begins to bear fruit at 2.5-3 years of age; planting spacing - at least 1 meter. When planting apple trees on a dwarf rootstock in gardens where there are many trees, you can plant the plants closer to each other.
The highlight of the dwarf rootstock is that the apple tree begins to bear fruit earlier. At times, ripening of the first fruits can begin in the year of planting a 2-year-old plant. But in order for the apple tree to develop normally, it is advisable to stop its fruiting at such an early date, breaking off the ovaries. Our variety needs a special, individual approach for the plant to bear fruit well and develop normally. The apple tree needs to be tied up, because the root system does not lie so deep. Strong winds can uproot a tree from the soil. Small trees are intended for large yields, which means that they quickly become obsolete and die. Dwarf apple trees give fruits for 12 years.
For columnar forms, such varieties are suitable as: "Currency"," Yesenia "," Moscow necklace ". The natural shape of these apple trees is similar to a column, it only remains to support it.
It is possible to graft our variety on a columnar stock, but as a result you will see a dwarf tree with a pyramid-shaped crown. Because of this, this type is rarely seen in the seedling market.
Winter variation of the variety. The apple tree "Medunitsa" is so fond of gardeners because of its characteristics that new variants of this variety were born. The most popular option is winter. Fruit ripening occurs in the last days of September, storage of the crop continues until spring days. But the winter version is more acidic and tastes less sweet than the summer version.
Apple tree "Medunitsa": disembarkation (terms, process)
Planting and caring for our variety is almost the same as planting and caring for any other apple tree. The planting rules are simple: it is necessary to correctly determine the date and prepare the place.
Planting time depends on the region (either early spring or late autumn). The middle strip is in autumn, to avoid spring frosts. Siberia and the Urals - in the spring to avoid early autumn frosts. If the winter is not snowy, then the apple trees are planted in the spring. In spring, planting is carried out only at freezing temperatures. The soil thaws at this time and is well cultivated (60 cm deep).
Before planting a seedling in the fall, you need to know that: there should be a month before the start of frost; this variety is not planted early, since a long time in the heat will "help" the growth of shoots, which are doomed to death at the first frost.
The preparation of the place of residence and the planting process include several stages. The beginning of the first stage is 6 months before the planting date. If the tree is planted in the spring, then the planting site is prepared in the fall. If you decide to plant in the fall, then get ready in the spring or summer.
There is a landing place. Now we dig a hole slightly larger than the root ball of the future apple tree (for a 2-year-old plant - 50 × 50 × 50 cm).
We divide the excavated land into 2 parts: fertile and the rest.
Mix the fertile part with fertilizers, fill the hole ½ with the mixture.
In the center we drive in a stake to which the plant will be attached.
Place the seedling in the center, straighten the roots, fill the hole completely with a mixture of earth and fertilizers.
We water the young tree, tamp the earth.But you do not need to strongly compact the soil around the roots - harm them. Good watering is recommended, then adding soil again, then watering again.
What is the care of an apple tree: pruning, feeding, protection. In the first year of life, no special care is needed. The only thing to do is to water. The first month is watered when the soil surface is completely dry. Next, watering is carried out 1p / 7 days. The next year, they begin to cut. The crown is formed when the tree is 2 years old. We form the tree in the form of sparse tiers with an interval of 30-40 cm. This maintains the natural shape of the pyramid. You can form a bowl-shaped crown: we cut out the central shoot on the tree, instead of it - 4-5 side branches.
Variety is vigorous and grows quickly, but shoot formation is weak. Because of this, pruning is necessary. Every spring and autumn, sanitary pruning is carried out (all damaged and diseased branches are removed).
Spring pruning is needed every year to thin out the crown and stimulate shoot formation. In the summer, the young growths are pinched and the branches that shade the apples are removed. If you want to harvest the fruits every year, you need to control the rate of the number of ovaries every spring.
Top dressing: spring, autumn. In spring, nitrogen is needed for "green mass gain", growth and fruit formation. In autumn, phosphorus and potassium are needed to ripen wood, prepare for winter. When using fertilizers, strictly monitor the dosage.
It is important to groom at the end of the season. We remove everything unnecessary from the trunk circle, dig up the soil shallowly and protect the trunk from frost (young apple trees are wrapped in spruce branches, adults are whitened in spring and autumn).
The variety requires preventive measures against enemies and diseases. In early spring, the trees are sprayed with medications containing copper.
Apple tree "Medunitsa": answers to frequently asked questions
What is the price of seedlings? The cost depends on the rootstock, age, root integrity, region and manufacturer's brand. For example, the price in Vladimir is 400-700 rubles / 1 piece. (container 3-10 l); 25t.r. / 1 pc. (container 65-110 l). Expensive seedlings: columnar, dwarf over 3 years old, grown in a container. The tree is already bearing fruit, and you can immediately see that this is the right variety. Cheap plants - on seed stock with an open root system.
In what year does fruiting begin? We determine by the stock. The smaller it is, the faster the harvest will appear. Our variety begins to bear fruit at the 5th year of life.
Why doesn't it bear fruit? If the tree does not even bloom, not that it does not bear fruit, it means that the time has not come yet, or the buds have been damaged due to frost. If there is no fruiting, this means that the tree is poorly pollinated, or enemies have damaged the flowers.
What should be the care during flowering? At this time, everything possible is done for pollination: honey and sugar compositions for bees are hung on apple trees. Another option: place containers with water in the crown, and in them flowering branches of another summer variety.
Harvest time. Harvesting of the summer variety in the middle lane is carried out in the last days of August. Southern regions - early August, northern - end. Winter apples are harvested in the last days of September and the first days of October. Fruit picking in technical ripeness is carried out earlier