Of course, Apple tree - this is one of the main characters, which today is located on any personal plots. The gardener seeks to experiment with varieties, to choose exactly those that are most suitable for him according to one or another characteristic - the level of growth, the abundance of the crop, and unpretentiousness. There are also varieties that can meet all of these requirements and are very popular and in demand in modern horticulture. One of these varieties is Antonovka - this is one of the oldest varieties that draws attention to its characteristics, characteristics of the variety, planting and caring for it. Antonovka is also famous for its incredible taste, but few people know that, in principle, this is a whole variety, and it includes several varieties.
In this article, we will dwell in more detail on the characteristics of Antonovka, on a description of its features. We will also touch on the features of planting and caring for a tree, because it is these conditions and aspects that can sometimes affect whether a gardener chooses this variety or prefers something else. The article will be of interest to those gardeners who do not yet have much experience in planting Antonovka and caring for it, and to those who already have some experience and knowledge about the variety, but at the same time strives to discover newer and more relevant information.
Description of the Antonovka variety, its main characteristics
Antonovka is an apple cultivar, a group that also includes several apple cultivars that have their own characteristics and characteristics. You can find a lot of various information about Antonovka, and in this article we will try to sort out all these subtleties and aspects on the shelves, so that then it is more clear what are the advantages of the variety, what are its features, possible disadvantages, and how to treat the gardener himself to this plant, having all such information about him.
According to the estimates of gardeners and breeders, Antonovka accounts for more than half of the total apple harvest sold today. But, one way or another, the share in recent years may sometimes decrease, as gardeners find more and more new and profitable varieties. Still, Antonovka is already a classic of garden plots, so it is still a leader, and it is chosen by gardeners in different regions of our country. There are several types of Antonovka, each of which has its own characteristics and features. Anyone can choose a gardener, the main thing is to understand what they are.
Ordinary Antonovka is a line that includes Bryansk, Oryol, Lipetsk and Michurinsk - the varieties here are not only located in some kind of hierarchy, nor differ from each other for autumn and early winter varieties. Autumn - these are all varieties that grow in more northern regions. There they feel very comfortable, give a bountiful apple harvest, in principle, gardeners like them because, despite growing in northern latitudes, they do not lose their taste and characteristics. If we talk about early winter varieties, then these are all those apple trees that are planted to the south. There they grow, are filled with strength, light and energy, and their taste can seem richer.
The ordinary Antonovka has a vigorous crown - it tends upward, towards the sun, while in its youth it has erect branches and shoots. When the tree matures, becomes more mature, the crown becomes more spreading, spherical.The bark has a standard brown color, while the shoots are heterogeneous, give rather uneven growth, the leaves are oblong, the flowers are large, have a pink tint and a persistent floral aroma. Fruits - have a yellowish-greenish tinge, if the fruits lie for a certain time, then a characteristic apple aroma begins to emanate from them, sometimes a slight blush appears on apples from one while, which also indicates that they are already ripe enough, and that they can be eaten.
There are several advantages of the Ordinary Antonovka - the variety is characterized by sufficient winter hardiness, can withstand temperature extremes or too low temperatures. The variety is universal, can be used for making drinks, for making jam and jams, juices. Antonovka seedlings can withstand lower temperatures, they are distinguished by strong growth rates, and in general this variety is compatible with many other varieties, which is also its advantage. Apple fruits can be transported over long distances, while they do not lose their taste and appearance at all. When the fruits reach their maximum ripeness, they do not tend to crumble, which is also a huge advantage, because scavengers are those apples that are not at all popular, and which can only be used for private purposes. It was the classic ordinary Antonovka that became the progenitor of some other varieties. Among them are Bogatyr, Cherry Apple, Imrus and Orlovim.
Antonovka also has several notable drawbacks. Firstly, you will have to wait long enough for the moment when the very first fruits will appear, since Antonovka takes several years to do this. Secondly, the variety as a whole gets an average rating in terms of resistance to fungal diseases. In particular, the variety is not particularly resistant to scab, and this, of course, does not have the best effect on its health and productivity. Antonovka also does not mind eating the moth, so you need to take time and take some preventive measures and treatments so that the plant feels more comfortable and safer.
But also Antonovka ordinary is not a separate variety, but a group of varieties. This includes Antonovka Kurskaya, Antonovka simple, Antonovka glass, Antonovskoe apple. It is for this reason that it is sometimes quite difficult to evaluate and describe Antonovka - this is too diverse varietal and species subgroup, which is interesting in its own way, but in its own way and incredibly complex and multifaceted.
The second Antonovka, which we will consider, is the Antonovka dessert. Its creators are domestic breeders who strove to prolong fruiting and create mid-winter Antonovka varieties. The tree has an average height, the crown is spherical at first, but the older the plant becomes, the more rounded the crown itself becomes. It needs to be trimmed to shape it, keep it neat, and easy and affordable to harvest. The fruits are light green, sometimes stripes or blush can be seen on them. The weight of one fruit can reach two hundred grams, so they can be defined as large. Taste characteristics are assessed as high, since the fruits are very sweet, there is sourness, but quite insignificant. From one apple tree, you can collect from forty kilograms to 120 kilograms, it all depends on which region the tree grows in, how much the gardener was attentive to it, and what is the age of the apple tree. If you create favorable conditions for storing the harvested crop, then the apples will quite successfully last until next spring, they will not lose their taste and characteristics, and will also remain useful.One way or another, it is rated only 4.2 points out of five - not the highest for such a versatile variety. If we compare it with the ordinary Antonovka, then Dessertnaya has a larger crop, but the tree is not so resistant to temperature extremes and frosts, which is certainly a big drawback.
Zolotaya Antonovka is a relatively new variety that ripens later in the summer. At the same time, the variety differs in that its fruits are not at all maturing, and they also do not have a characteristic apple aroma. The crown is not so abundant and extensive, but at the same time it can spread out in breadth. Apples reach an average weight of 150 grams, sometimes they can be slightly larger, their taste and aroma is the same typical as that of an ordinary Antonovka, although some gardeners say that the apples are not at all fragrant. They are sweet and slightly sour. At the same time, the fruits are also incredibly juicy, for which, of course, they are very appreciated. The color is more golden than all other apple varieties. This variety has many advantages - it is more productive, and the harvest, of course, is abundant and tasty. Also, the external characteristics of this variety are more pleasant and attractive - the fruits have a very good presentation. It is necessary to point out about resistance to various diseases, in particular, increased immunity, if we talk about scab. So the choice of one or another species or variety depends entirely on the preferences of the gardener himself, on his tastes and goals, if we talk exactly about what result he wants to achieve in planting.
Now it is worth referring in more detail to the description of the Antonovka type itself as a varietal group. This is a Russian variety, which initially began to grow in the Kursk region, while it can be assumed that Antonovka has become an incredibly successful hybrid with some wild variety, but it turned out to be very large and, most importantly, very tasty fruits. An incredible amount of discussions and discussions are still going on around the variety, its taste characteristics, and yield indicators. Of course, the choice of this varietal type and group depends solely on how the gardener himself relates to such apples, whether he is ready to devote time to trees, if we talk about care and preventive measures.
The State Register indicates that Antonovka can grow on the territory of our country in almost all areas, as well as in almost all areas, even in those that are closer to the north. Antonovka is also very common on the territory of Belarus, where it is very much loved and respected for its characteristics and versatility of fruits. In addition, some gardeners have already managed to transport Antonovka to the territory of Europe, America and even Africa, but in Tunisia, you can enjoy the fruits of Antonovka already around mid-June, so this apple tree is also quite in demand and widespread there.
There is one thing - Antonovka is an almost sterile variety, and therefore it is recommended to plant pollinating varieties next to it. It is best to choose varieties such as Welsey, Pepin Saffron or Autumn Striped Apple, as their flowering periods coincide, which means the harvest will be plentiful and strong. In general, Antonovka can get along well next to other apple varieties, it will become a good neighbor, and mutual pollination will help to get a plentiful and very tasty harvest. The height of the tree usually depends on which rootstock of the seedling was chosen by the gardener himself. For example, a vigorous and large tree can be obtained if the rootstock method is rooted. Deformed oval - this shape is obtained as a result of a different type of rootstock, the crown becomes more spreading or spherical in accordance with the age and stage of development of the plant.At the same time, Antonovka has an advantage - even if the crown is incredibly spreading, and the harvest is very abundant, then the gardener will not need to spend time installing props, since the plant feels great without them.
The Antonovka sapling initially raises concerns and suspicions. The thing is that it looks very weakened, but then, if the plant is properly planted and looked after, then a completely different appearance appears. The seedling becomes fresher, new branches appear. At the same time, of course, you should not count on too fast growth, because Antonovka generally grows quite slowly, but after a few years you can get a very extensive and large tree that will give incredibly tasty fruits in large quantities, the main thing is to be patient and give the plant attention and care.
In gardens and in private plots, Antonovka, perhaps, becomes the oldest plant. As a rule, growth and fruiting continues for thirty to forty years. There are versions that gardeners discovered trees whose age reached two hundred years, in general, this is really possible, especially if the tree grows in those territories and in those areas that are considered the most suitable and favorable for them. Unlike the wild apple tree, Antonovka gives larger fruits, while the gardener himself directly affects the size and abundance of fruiting. Antonovka also produces one and a half pound fruits, their weight can reach six hundred grams, this is really impressive, and really attracts many gardeners to grow this apple variety.
Antonovka as a whole is a group of varieties that are quite resistant to frost and temperature extremes. The variety is stress-resistant, the yield is not affected by the weather, which, of course, is a huge varietal advantage. The root system is strong, the density is at a depth of 50-70 centimeters, and then the root becomes thinner and thinner, but to the very tips it needs moisture and watering. At the same time, it is unacceptable for the root system to touch the groundwater, as this can lead to decay processes, fungal and viral infections will develop, and, as a result, the plant can die very slowly.
Winter hardiness, as we have already noted, in the varietal group is at a very high level, while the trees are even very small, but they can tolerate frosts or sudden temperature changes. They have a very high immunity, which attracts gardeners to grow Antonovka even in those regions where, in principle, the weather conditions are far from perfect - they are very harsh, the plant can be exposed to winds, drafts, prolonged frosts, heavy rainfall.
From an adult tree, as a rule, you can collect up to two hundred kilograms of incredibly tasty and transportable fruits. There were cases when the harvest from one tree reached half a ton in weight, but this also largely depends on how carefully the gardener looked after the tree, what care measures he took, whether there was prevention from diseases and pests. The variety is resistant to scab and powdery mildew, but not enough, it still needs control and preventive treatments. There is also a medium resistance to fruit rot. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically treat trees with fungicides and insecticides, because preventive measures and disease prevention are much easier to implement than to further deal with the consequences of diseases. Having considered the characteristics of Antonovka, now it is necessary to move on to some conditions for planting a tree and subsequent care for it. This information will be important and interesting not only for novice gardeners and gardeners, but also for those who have already had experience in planting apple crops, but seeks to expand their horizons within the framework of care activities.
Planting Antonovka and caring for her
It is recommended to plant Antonovka in the autumn period - until the end of October, but it is better to refrain from planting in November, since the plant will not have time to take root before frost, it may simply die. If the gardener has planned planting in the spring, then here it is best to implement his plan by the end of April, since then it will not be the most convenient time, and the plant may be delayed in its development, which will negatively affect the future harvest. Of course, everything also depends on the weather conditions, which the gardener must also be guided by without fail.
You should first take care of preparing a pit for planting seedlings. For this, a pit is being prepared in the fall, where a bush will be planted in spring, and the seedling should also be given about a month before planting and the onset of frost, so that it has time to prepare and adapt to new conditions. In this way, it is possible to soften the adaptation period between planting in open ground and the fact that the seedling is faced with not the most favorable conditions. Fruiting can be carried out in absolutely any soil in its composition. But nevertheless, loams and sandy loam soils are considered the most favorable soils, in which Antonovka feels as comfortable as possible. If the composition of the soil differs from favorable, then it should also be prepared - fertilized with mineral components, add organic matter, make it better and, most importantly, fertile. Groundwater should lie at a depth of at least three meters so that it does not touch the root system, this should also be taken into account when choosing a site for planting apple crops.
The planting scheme is selected by the gardener strictly individually, much depends on the stock of Antonovka seedlings. In general, this should be a wide, spacious area for the tree to grow comfortably. On the other hand, do not forget that in general the plant is self-fertile, which means that planting must be alternated with trees of pollinating varieties. The distance between trees depends on their height. Usually they leave about five meters, no less. Even though it may seem that this is too much distance for seedlings, it is worth remembering that Antonovka trees give massive trees, so when they give active growth, the gardener will see that the saved distance was not at all in vain.
There are also several cultivation features that must be observed:
- watering of trees is carried out in moderation, much depends on weather conditions. Do not allow excessive drying of the soil, or also excessive waterlogging. The soil should be evenly moistened, there should not be too much moisture, as diseases and fungi can develop, and this is very dangerous for the culture
- plant feeding usually begins from the second season, it is best to apply complex fertilizers, since they are considered balanced and more suitable for growing Antonovka
- the tree needs protection from pests and bacteria, from diseases, because in general it has an average level of immunity
- pruning is a serious undertaking, since not only the appearance of the tree depends on it, but also its immune indicators, health, ease of harvesting
- it would be nice to mulch the soil. Thus, the trunk circle will not only be protected from pests, but also moisture from there will evaporate much more slowly, and the tree will be in more favorable conditions for itself.
Pruning should be started from the second today, every third new branch is removed in order to maintain the density of the emerging crown, but at the same time not to allow excessive thickening. Every spring, then sanitary pruning is also carried out, since all dried and painful shoots must be removed from the tree, as well as those branches that have become very weak, have a painful appearance.Also, pruning can be formative, we have already mentioned it - it is also of great importance for the development and health of the tree.
You can plant an apple tree with a handle or an eye, the choice depends solely on the preferences of the gardener himself, as well as on the varietal characteristics of Antonovka. Vaccinations can be carried out either in the spring or in the summer, focusing on the age of the tree and weather conditions. In general, trees are planted by both experienced gardeners and those who do not yet have much experience in planting and caring for apple trees. Seedlings can be of different sizes - vigorous, medium-sized, semi-dwarfs and, finally, completely dwarf seedlings. Ideally, tall apple trees are obtained that perfectly tolerate hypothermia and severe frosts, which, of course, has a great effect on the overall yield in general. An apple tree can be planted on its own seedlings. Also for a forest apple tree or for dwarf and medium-sized rootstocks, which are also ideal for these purposes.
Alternatively, you can grow an apple tree from its own seeds. For this, seeds are extracted from the ripened fruits, the fruits are best chosen from those that were in the southern part of the tree, where they are more saturated, and their seeds will be stronger and more viable. The pits should be no more than thirty centimeters deep, and the seeds before frost should be placed no more than four centimeters deep. Also, around the planting, it is worth mulching the soil well so that moisture remains, and so that the plant is not threatened by pests and insects. In the spring, the mulch can be removed, it will no longer be necessary.
Also, do not forget about feeding the plant, they must be done about three or four times during the entire season. Urea is ideally suitable for flowering, when the fruits are tied, ripen, it is better to provide the plant with nitrogen fertilizer. After the entire crop has been harvested, it is necessary to use a mixture with a high content of potassium and phosphorus for feeding, as they will allow the tree to recover and adapt faster, to prepare for the winter period. Every three to four years, it is worth carrying out a rejuvenating pruning of the plant, and at the same time you can graft some other varieties to Antonovka. You can take cuttings that grow on the site near the gardener himself, or you can take neighboring cuttings.
The real fruiting of Antonovka begins about the sixth year after the apple tree was planted in open ground. But nevertheless, these terms depend solely on which Antonovka variety was chosen, and in what conditions the plant grows. Flowering tends to be medium late, and in general it is typical of any cultivar, so it is worth paying close attention to this. In the southern regions, the fruits ripen at the beginning of September, but the northerners should wait a little before harvesting - ideally, it ripens by mid-September.
In order for the fruits to be stored for a long time after the gardener has removed them from the site, it is necessary to observe a good temperature regime. Also, for about three months, the fruits can be stored quite calmly in the created conditions, they feel very comfortable there, especially if these are fruits without damage or scratches. In general, Antonovka is a really excellent apple variety, which is completely unpretentious, but at the same time it is excellent for growing apple trees in both northern and southern regions. The result is a bountiful and delicious harvest that can be stored perfectly and can also be transported over long distances. The fruits are quite versatile in use, they can be used to prepare various sweet dishes and drinks, as well as simply to be consumed fresh.