Apple tree Altynai
The Altynai apple tree was bred by NV Ermakov and co-authors by hybridization of popular varieties "Altai Velvet"And" Phoenix Altai "on the basis of the Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture in Siberia in 1965.
The Altynai apple variety has been specially selected for planting in the lowlands of the mountainous and mountainous areas of the Altai Territory. The culture has been listed in the state register since 1999.
Apple tree Altynai: variety description and characteristics
Apple tree Altynai: photo of the variety
The Altynai apple tree is a medium-sized tree, the crown is rounded, leafy in a medium degree. The branches extend perpendicularly from the trunk, have a large number of annelids and twigs. The bark of a grayish color is covered with spots and stripes of brown color.
Shoots are thickened, upright, brown, pubescent. Leaves of rich emerald color, medium size, in the form of an egg, shortened, pointed, matte, pubescent, have wrinkles, edges in the form of teeth, wavy. The petiole is short, thickened.
The fruits of the Altynai apple variety are of medium size (sixty-five to one hundred and forty-two grams), but for Siberia they are large enough, round, slightly flattened at the top and bottom. The peel is smooth, thin.
The main color of the fruit is creamy, the integumentary color is bright salmon, almost the entire surface of the fruit is covered with stripes and specks. The fruit stem is of medium size, the funnel is of medium size in depth, narrow.
The inner content of apples has a pleasant taste, snow-white color, veins of a pale green color, sweet-sour, juicy, quite plump.
Apple tree Altynai: advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of the Altynai apple variety:
- Decorative, even, having excellent taste, rather large fruits when compared with other varieties grown in Siberia.
- The tree is immune to scab.
Disadvantages of the Altynai apple tree:
- Freezing of trees can occur in very harsh winters.
- The apple tree lacks immune defense against moniliosis.
Features of the variety
Apple tree Altynai: photo of the variety
- The size of an adult apple tree, growth per year.
The Altynai apple tree is of medium size. In bad weather conditions, the height reaches only two meters, no more.
The crown does not need to be formed, because it is already compact.
- Yield indicator, frequency of productivity.
Fruiting of the Altynai apple-tree variety is annual. The yield indicator is average. For example, in Gorno-Altaysk, a crop was harvested from an apple tree for seven years in the amount of 20.9 kg of fruits, the average figure for nineteen years was 8.8 tons per hectare.
- Tasting evaluation.
Fruits contain: fructose, glucose, sucrose (eleven percent), vitamin C (12.8 mg per hundred grams), malic and other acids (0.54%), pectin substances (2.44% on dry weight).
- Resistant to the winter season.
The Altynai apple variety is distinguished by an average level of frost resistance, freezing during severe winters can be two to three points.
- Disease immunity.
Apple trees have excellent immune protection against scab, this is a very important item for the Altai Territory, because in seventy percent of the season, trees are cultivated in order to get rid of scab.
Immunity to moniliosis is average.In order to avoid the incidence of this disease, before the flowering of the tree, early in the spring, treatment is carried out with agents containing copper, for example, a one percent solution of Bordeaux liquid.
Apple tree Altynai: reviews
- Svetlana, Irkutsk region: “Fruits weigh about sixty-five grams, which are quite large fruits for Siberia. The apples taste impatient, as is the case with the ranetki, in this case the taste is pure apple. "
- Alexandra, Biysk: “Apple trees of the Altynai variety grow in my garden shale-bushy. They perfectly endured the harsh winter, the scab did not hit them. Early in the spring, I spray the trunks with Oxyhom and Abiga-peak, in order to avoid moniliosis. For the winter, I wrap the apple trees with old tights. The fruits are attractive in appearance, have a pleasant taste and benefits, and contain a large amount of vitamins. They are stored for quite a long time without losing their attractiveness and excellent taste. "
- Tatiana, Rubtsovsk: “In the second month of summer I sow sunflower between rows of apple trees. For wintering, I wrap apple trees with spruce branches, the coniferous aroma scares various rodents. The trees have been able to withstand frosty times well so far. In the spring season, I prune frozen and overdried branches, then I process the wounds with garden pitch. By the last days of September, I harvest. Outwardly, the fruit is even, smooth. The whole family is very happy with the taste of apples. I prepare jam, jam from the fruits of the Altynai apple-tree, stuff the charlotte with fruits, and also make juices from apples. "
Apple tree Altynai: planting
- Optimal timing and scheme.
Pits for planting are dug in advance, the diameter is one meter, the depth is sixty-eighty cm.
When planning planting a tree on a site that is located in an area with warm climatic conditions, an open space is selected.
If the planting is carried out in the northern regions, then the site is selected so that it is not blown by the wind.
An apple tree is planted in the spring season, before budding begins. And the pits for planting are prepared in the autumn season.
In the Siberian region, planting is carried out in early May, and in the Russian center - in April days.
- Planting progress.
- A surface soil layer is poured into the hole, which is mixed with fertilizer mixtures, foliage and humus. Before installing the planting material in the hole, the soil is thoroughly watered with warm water.
- A stake is driven into the center, and a plant is set up on the mound from the south, the roots are straightened, the soil is filled up.
- The root collar should be above the surface soil layer. Then watering is carried out with two or three buckets of water.
- After planting, it is recommended to huddle a young tree with earth up to fifteen cm high, and humus and peat are poured under the apple tree to warm the root system.
Apple tree Altynai: care
Apple tree Altynai: photo of the variety
Early in the spring, near the Altynai apple tree, the snow cover is cleared, it is trampled down. In the spring season, the trunk is sprayed with a weak solution of the "Urea" agent. The trunk of a young tree is whitewashed with chalk, and an adult apple tree is whitewashed with lime. Two or three years after planting the apple tree, I begin to feed. The first top dressing is applied early in the spring. Nitroammofoska (thirty grams) or "Urea" (five hundred grams) is poured under one tree. Or humus is introduced (three to four buckets).
During flowering, the apple tree is fed 2 times, with liquid fertilizers. For example, sodium humate (ten grams) and nitrophoska (five hundred grams) are diluted in a bucket of water.
In the second summer month, potash and phosphorus fertilizing is introduced.
In the autumn season, the tree also needs potash and phosphorus fertilizers. Potassium (one tablespoon), double superphosphate (two tablespoons) are dissolved in 10 liters of water. One bucket of fertilizer is poured per square meter.
In order for the Altynai apple tree to grow and develop well, watering is carried out three times during the season, but the soil must be moistened eighty cm deep. The first watering is done when the buds are blooming. The second - after the ripening of the fruit. The last time it is watered in the autumn season, as a moisture recharge.
- How to prepare an apple tree for wintering.
If you live in the Siberian region, then for the winter you should cover the trunk circle with an old blanket and dry foliage.
For young apple trees of Altynai, whitewashing of trunks and branches is carried out with chalk, for adult trees - with lime. Fitoverm is added to the whitewash.
To protect the trunks from rodents, in the autumn season the trees are tied with reeds, spruce spruce branches, tar paper, roofing felt or wrapped in thick paper material. In the spring season, the materials are removed.
- Cultivation in the Siberian region.
It is possible not to loosen the soil near the trunk circle.
Gardeners plant different vegetation near the trunk circle, for example, strawberry culture, in this case the soil will be covered, this manipulation will protect the root system from sudden changes in weather conditions, because this is a characteristic feature of Altai.
Watering is carried out in the 1st half of spring, after the snow cover melts. After the apples are set, watering stops.
To accumulate snow between the rows, you can sow mustard and sunflower in the aisle in July.
- How to trim and shape the crown.
In the spring season, before the juice begins to move, the frozen and dried branches are pruned. Wounds must be covered with garden varnish. The formation of the crown is not required, since it is already compact and neat.
- Pollination varieties.
Altayskoye Velvetnoye, Gornoaltayskoye, Altai News, Pepinka Altayskaya.
Ripening and fruiting
Fruit ripening begins from the fourth to fifth year after planting, therefore, the fruiting rate is at an average level.
- Flowering begins in the first days of June.
- Harvesting can be carried out from the 15th of September.
- Fruit storage is quite long, about four months.
Regions for cultivation
The Altynai apple tree is recommended for cultivation in Western Siberia. But also the apple tree can be cultivated in the Russian Center and in the Primorsky Territory.
The Altynai apple tree is perfect for cultivation in Altai, the fruits have excellent taste.
But the apple trees must be prepared for wintering, the shelter is made using dry foliage, the trunks are tied with tar paper, roofing felt, and dense paper material. If you take good care of the Altynai apple variety, then it is guaranteed to delight you with a generous yield.