Apple tree Aelita
Apple tree Aelita has been very popular with gardeners and commercial firms for more than 15 years. The tree is compact, easily tolerates frost in winter, systematically brings apples of the correct type, having a sweet and juicy taste.
Apple tree Aelita: description and characteristics of the variety
Apple tree Aelita: photo of the variety
- The ripening period of the fruits is autumn, the fruits are harvested, which ripen until the end fourteen days after harvesting, in the first days of September.
- In January days, the gradual deterioration of the fruits begins, in this regard, it is recommended to eat them before the new year.
- It is advisable to eat the fruit before the last days of December to avoid crop loss.
- The apple variety Aelita is included in the state register in the North-West. "Aelita" adapts best of all to the climate of this territory of Russia.
Aelita apple tree of strong growth, crown is broad-pyramidal, lush. The main branches are brown in color and grow at an acute angle from the trunk, which increases the likelihood that the shoots will break when the snow falls. The bark covering a powerful, rather thickened trunk is gray in color. Elongated, medium thick shoots can bend and be upright. The leaves are dark green in color, large, wrinkled. Leaves are elongated, slightly pointed at the tips. When a tree is in bloom, large white-pink flowers appear on it.
The fruit is not very large: the average weight of the fruit is one hundred and thirty grams. All apples are almost one-dimensional, rounded, in the form of a cone. The main fruit color is yellow-green. A streaky or solid blush-like cover color may cover the entire fruit. The stem holding the fruit is moderately thick and long. The inner content is juicy, medium hard, yellowish in color. The seeds are brown in color, medium in size, long, sharp at the ends.
The palatability of the fruit is sweet, slightly sour. Fruits have excellent taste fourteen days after harvesting during their full ripeness. The apple variety Aelita has a universal purpose, fruits can be eaten fresh, made jam from fruits, squeezed juices, dried apples.
Features of the variety
The fruits of the apple tree Aelita: photo
The apple tree Aelita was bred by Professor Sergei Isaev, who spent almost all his years on the selection of apple varieties that are resistant to frost and immunity to scab, as well as have excellent taste.
The apple variety Aelita was bred in the thirties of the twentieth century by hybridizing the varieties "Cinnamon striped" and "Welsey". The variety was officially registered in 1999.
- Where the variety grows.
After the Aelita apple tree was bred, it was grown only in the northwest of Russia.
Over time, the apple tree has become widespread throughout the Russian regions, as well as abroad, because the variety perfectly adapts to any climate.
The plant is undemanding to the soil, temperature conditions, perfectly withstands frost and heat.
The apple variety Aelita is grown in any territory of Russia. But do not forget that although the variety is undemanding to the conditions, it needs to be properly and regularly looked after.
- Yield indicator.
The apple variety Aelita has a high yield. The average annual yield from one apple tree is thirty kg.
From 1 hectare, on which three hundred and fifty-four hundred mature trees are planted, it turns out up to one hundred and fifty centners of apples.
Fruiting of the Aelita apple tree begins from the fifth to seventh year after planting, the tree bears fruit annually.
As a rule, harvesting is carried out from September to October days, after which the fruits lie fourteen days to fully ripen.
Apple tree Aelita: planting and care
For good survival of trees in any conditions, when planting them, some rules are observed that guarantee the future health of the apple tree and a decent yield.
The rules for successful planting of the Aelita apple variety are given below.
How to choose a seedling. Young seedlings adapt better to a new place, fruiting begins faster. When choosing planting material, pay attention to its root system, the roots should be well developed.
The optimal time for planting. It is advisable to purchase planting material and prepare holes in the autumn season. It is necessary to start planting an apple tree early in the spring and finish before March ends.
Landing plot. The variety is light-loving, in this regard, the seedling is planted where the shadow is almost always absent.
How to prepare a hole for planting. Landing pits are spaced approximately four meters apart. The best hole size is eighty cubic meters. The surface soil layer is placed to one side of the hole, the earth dug from below is placed on the other edge of the hole.
Peat, manure, compost fertilizer, superphosphate, potassium, ash in small quantities are added to the surface soil layer.
All ingredients are mixed, this substrate is filled with a planting pit after it has been loosened with a pitchfork. You can plant a plant thirty days after the hole is filled with a nutrient mixture so that it settles.
How to plant an apple tree. Before planting, the hole filled with the nutrient mixture is filled to the brim with soil. Further, a hole is made in this soil, so that the root system can freely settle in it.
The roots are carefully placed at the bottom of the pit, watering and filling with soil is carried out. After ten to fifteen minutes, the soil around the tree is compacted.
Immediately after planting, the tree is tied up for future direct growth. For this purpose, three pegs are stuck around the plant, an apple tree in the form of the number 8 is tied to them.
Near the variety, it is required to plant other apple trees for pollination, because the Aelita apple tree is self-fertile. The best varieties for pollination: Antonovka Dessertnaya, Macintosh.
You should start caring for the variety immediately after planting. First, attention is paid to the shape of the tree: the main shoot is shortened by two or three buds, the remaining branches are cut slightly below the main shoot.
At 1 year of development, the apple tree needs to be looked after as follows: protect it from pests and water it regularly. Watering is done with two to three buckets of water during the season.
The formation of the crown is carried out for three to four years, until the apple tree has grown.
Once a year, the central shoot is cut into three or four buds, the branches that grow inside the crown are removed, the branches are cut out, surpassing the main shoot in growth.
If the crown is formed correctly, then it can be guaranteed that the tree will grow healthy and bear many fruits.
The trunk circle should also be looked after. Before fruiting begins, regular weeding and loosening of the soil around the tree is required.
After the apple tree first bore fruit, the lawn is sown in the near-trunk circle. The top dressing, which was added during planting, is enough for the proper development of the plant for twenty to twenty five years.
After this, a lack of phosphorus and nitrogen-containing fertilizers may appear.
Due to the lack of nitrogen and phosphorus, the taste of the fruit changes, the foliage changes color, the ovaries fall off. If you find such symptoms, add minerals to the soil of the trunk circle.
An important role in the fate of the apple tree is played by birds that protect it from various enemies. In this regard, attract a large number of birds to the garden area with apple trees.
For this purpose, you can put together feeders and hang them on the branches of trees. Thus, the birds will always know that there are delicacies on the trees and will eliminate pests.
But the birds will not constantly peck out harmful insects. Then you have to use specialized pesticides that will kill the parasites. To get a good result, the trees should be treated twice.
It is forbidden to process apple trees for more than two courses a year, as chemicals can get into the fruit, and then into the human body.
Diseases and harmful insects
There are a large number of harmful insects that interfere with the normal development of the Aelita apple tree
Hawthorn moth. Caterpillars cause damage to foliage, eat out holes in the leaves, nine mm in diameter. To fight small parasites, insecticidal preparations are used, for example, "Zolon", "Metathion", "Cyanox". Large pests must be collected by hand. It is important to get rid of them along with the spider pupae to prevent the emergence of new parasites.
Apple weevil. Apple buds are pierced by a weevil, pests extract juice this way. To destroy pests, you need to spray trees with preparations "Ambush", "Fufanon", "Corsair". It is recommended to process the apple tree when the buds are detached.
Eastern moth. The caterpillars of this pest eat away passages in apples and branches. To fight parasites, strong pesticides are used, for example, "Benzophosphate", "Chlorophos", "Metaphos". If there are no results after the apple trees were processed for the first time, then after fifteen days the processing is repeated.
Diseases that most commonly affect the variety.
Witch's broom. A sign of the disease - thin side shoots appear, covered with red bark. They grow out of dormant buds during the last summer days.
This is a virus-borne disease that causes the tree to stop growing and its yield decreases.
The disease is not cured, for this reason, infected trees are uprooted and burned to end the disease.
For prophylactic purposes, when planting apple trees, exceptionally good, healthy soil is used, and the apple tree is regularly treated with preparations to combat sucking insects.
Bitter rot. The disease occurs when apples ripen, and it attacks the fruits. If the summer season is warm and damp, the disease also affects the branches. To prevent this fungal infection, drugs are used: "Oleocobrite", "Iron vitriol", "Nitrafen". Apple trees are processed before the buds bloom.
The apple tree Aelita is a wonderful variety that gives apples with an excellent sweet taste. If you take proper care of the tree, then every year it will bring a generous harvest and live for many decades.