Cherry Rossoshanskaya black
Briefly about the features of this subspecies of cherry, it is compactness, a high level of frost resistance and rather juicy fruits with a dark skin tone. Cherry Rossoshanskaya black has been cultivated in our country for more than 20 years, and quite successfully, it won the love of numerous gardeners and quickly spread. We will describe in more detail about this variety below.
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black: variety description
This subspecies of cherry appeared due to the planting of a freely pollinated subspecies of this culture at the Rossoshan station named after A.Ya. Voronchikhina. They say that such a seedling is Black consumer goods, since the external characteristics of the fruits and trees of these two subspecies are similar in many respects. Since 1986, this cherry variety has been grown in the Central, Nizhnevolzhsky, North Caucasian regions of Russia, and quite successfully. At this time, the Rossoshanskaya black cherry variety is actively planted not only in private gardens, but also on an industrial scale. This variety is especially actively grown in the Rostov and Volgograd regions, as well as in the Central regions of Russia, where soils rich in chernozem prevail.
Cherry tree Rossoshanskaya black has an average height of about 4 meters, its crown has a pyramidal shape, which has a wide base. The peculiarity that distinguishes this plant is the rather small foliage of the crown, and over the years the crown of this culture only becomes even more bare. The trunk of this tree is endowed with dark gray bark, a smooth surface and almost no cracks. The shoots of the plant are straight, although in rare cases they may have a slight curvature. On young shoots, the bark has a brown-green color, and then becomes gray, and there are also longitudinal stripes at the very base. The leaves of this variety are endowed with an oval shape and a slightly sharp top. The length of one leaf can be up to 10 centimeters, while the width is a maximum of five centimeters. Also, like most subspecies of this culture, the leaves on top have a glossy surface and a bright green tint, but below the leaves have a slight pubescence and a grayish color. The inflorescence, in most cases, consists of two flowers, although there are also such inflorescences consisting of one or three flowers. At the beginning of the flowering period, the flowers are white, and towards the end of flowering, they change their shade to pink. The fruits of the black Rossoshanskaya cherry have a round shape, with a slight compression on the side. Each such berry can weigh about 4.5 grams. Such berries are endowed with an intense dark cherry skin tone, almost black in color. The inside of the fruit is quite juicy, fleshy and thick. The taste of Rossoshanskaya black cherry is sweet, with a slight sourness, due to which this subspecies is actively used in the preparation of compotes, on an industrial scale.
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black: characteristics
To characterize the subspecies of this culture, criteria such as are often used:
- The volume of the harvest.
- The level of resistance to bad weather conditions.
- Immunity to diseases and resistance to attack by harmful insects.
- Duration of flowering and fruiting.
Let us examine the characteristic features of the Rossoshanskaya black cherry variety in more detail.
- Frost resistance, drought resistance.
Cherry variety Rossoshanskaya black is endowed with a high level of frost resistance, can survive low air temperatures with minimal losses, no more than 10 percent of cases of freezing of flower buds have been revealed. As for the level of drought resistance of this plant, it is slightly above average. During a prolonged lack of fluid and a complete lack of watering, the plant may die. In general, a fairly high level of resistance of this subspecies to the dry season and frost makes it possible to grow this plant in many regions of our country, as well as in the CIS countries.
- Flowering time, pollination, ripening period.
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black is a representative of self-pollinated subspecies, although if you want to get the largest volume and quality of the crop, then other pollinating varieties should be planted near this plant. In comparison with other subspecies in this culture, the flowering period takes on a late beginning, and the ripening time of the fruits begins in the last days of June.
- Fruiting and productivity.
The first fruiting of the Rossoshanskaya black cherry variety begins three to four years after planting. At this moment, up to about 4 kilograms of berries can be removed from each plant. The crop is growing at a rather slow pace, for example, by the 9th year of the plant's life, you can get about 12 kilograms of berries. Cherry variety Rossoshanskaya black has a distinctive feature in the duration of the preservation of berries on the tree. If the fruits are harvested together with the stalks, the berries can retain their marketable qualities for a long time.
- Fruit application.
Due to its high technological characteristics, such as the percentage of sugar content, taste, density of the inner part and others, this subspecies has been used for quite a long time for the manufacture of compotes, jams, juices, and on an industrial scale.
- Immunity to diseases and harmful insects.
Cherry variety Rossoshanskaya black is endowed with a low or medium level of resistance to diseases such as coccomycosis and moniliosis. For the leaves and shoots of this subspecies, treatment procedures should be carried out regularly in preventive measures.
Advantages and disadvantages
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black: photo of the variety
The main advantages of the Rossoshanskaya black cherry variety are:
- The compactness of the crown and the tree itself.
- The ability to long-term preservation of fruits during long-term transportation.
- Cold resistance and the possibility of cultivation in many areas.
- High technological characteristics of the fruit.
The disadvantages of the Rossoshanskaya black cherry variety include the following:
- Low level of immunity to diseases and harmful insects.
- A rather slow increase in yield.
It is worth noting that even the fact that this variety is considered self-pollinated, experienced gardeners advise planting other varieties near this tree, for a more abundant and better harvest.
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black: planting
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black, although it is a resistant variety to low air temperatures, but rather strong frosts can lead to the death of most buds. Therefore, it is imperative to choose the right place and time period for planting this plant.
Also, like other fruit plants, or rather most of them, the best time to plant this tree will be the spring period of the year. Thanks to this, it will be possible to prevent the freezing of young shoots that are not yet quite strong.
At the time of choosing a site for planting a young tree, you need to remember and know the following features:
- The planting site of the seedling should not be in the lowlands.
- Finding groundwater should be at least one and a half meters deep from the soil surface.
- The site for the future growth of this tree must be protected from the north from cold and through winds.
- This plant prefers to grow in loamy or sandy loam soil.
In addition, it is worth remembering that this plant should be at least two meters away from buildings and other trees. The best option for planting this tree would be a site on a small hill near a wall or brick fence, which can accumulate heat in the daytime.
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black grows quite well near other fruit trees, but it is better not to plant this plant next to nightshade and large trees, for example, linden, birch, oak. This culture also does not like such a neighborhood as berry bushes, such as gooseberries and raspberries.
Before you buy a seedling, be sure to examine it very carefully, not only externally, but also on its condition of the root system and stems. The shoots of this plant should be flexible, there should be no creases and cracks. The rhizome of the plant should be free of swellings, sufficiently well developed and formed. Before the planting procedure, it is worth removing all branches that are broken off and with signs of damage, as well as such shoots growing in the direction of the plant roots.
Planting rules for black Rossoshanskaya cherries:
- A hole for the seedling is dug in advance. It should be at least 65 centimeters wide and approximately 45 centimeters deep. This planting hole should be watered with 12 liters of water and left until it is completely absorbed.
- If the soil is heavy enough, it should be mixed with sand. This will provide good drainage.
- In the middle of the hole, it is required to drive a peg, near which a seedling of this culture is placed. After that, the root system of the plant is carefully straightened and sprinkled with soil.
- A layer of mulch is made on top, within a radius of one meter around the tree. Sawdust is suitable as mulch. Thanks to this, the least evaporation of liquid and drying out of the soil will occur.
It should be said that if the top of the seedling wilted, then it is allowed to cut it off to living tissue, just not more than one aunt in length. After planting a young plant, its root collar should be about 4 centimeters above the soil level. After planting the plant, it should be well watered, and the tree itself needs to be tied to a peg.
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black: care
Caring for the Rossoshanskaya black cherry variety includes such actions as: watering, constant loosening of the soil, weeding from weeds and preventive actions against diseases and harmful insects. It is also worth following the procedure for pruning young shoots. About 40 centimeters of the trunk above the soil surface must be completely naked, with the absence of any branches. Watering this crop is required abundantly, four times during the entire growing season: after the flowering period, at the time of fruit set, after harvesting most of the harvest, and closer to the middle of the month of October. For each such watering, at least 10 liters of liquid should be consumed. For such a plant, lime must be added to the soil once every six years. And before planting a tree, it is worth adding potassium chloride and organic matter to the soil, for good and quick rooting.
Diseases and pests
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black can undergo some infections and attack of insect pests. The most common and dangerous ones are:
- Coccomycosis. It manifests itself as a fairly rapid change in the shade of the leaves to yellow and further fall of this foliage. The causative agent of this disease is a fungus, which most often appears and spreads due to an excess of moisture. Therefore, it is imperative to control the watering regime. To combat such an ailment, a spraying procedure with a copper solution is used.
- Moniliosis... It manifests itself as burns on the bark, leaves and branches of the tree. To combat, the plant is treated with fungicides, and also burn all infected shoots and foliage.
- Caterpillars and green aphids. When attacked by these pests, traces of gnawing can be seen on the leaves. You should constantly inspect the plant carefully and remove such insects, if any.
The best method of preventing most diseases is considered to be a high-quality and timely inspection of the plant for signs of disease, fungus and the presence of insects. If diseased branches and leaves are found, they must be removed and disposed of by burning, in order to prevent the spread of the disease.
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black: reviews of gardeners
Cherry Rossoshanskaya black is rightfully considered one of the most delicious and attractive. Due to its level of resistance to cold and intermittent dry periods, this plant can be cultivated in different weather conditions. In addition to all this, the fruits of this variety have the ability to long-term storage and high technological characteristics, due to which this subspecies is used on an industrial scale. Now you can see a huge number of reviews about this subspecies on the Internet. Here are some of them:
“I decided to buy varieties of black Rossoshanskaya cherry and plant it in my garden immediately in the spring. The first thing I noticed was the dark color of the fruits and their taste characteristics. During planting, I introduced organic matter and mineral fertilizers into the soil in order for the plant to take root better. I constantly prune the tree end, and also treat the tree from harmful insects. This plant grows remarkably on my site, and I was quite satisfied with my choice. "
“Among the huge number of different subspecies in my area, there is this cherry variety. Cherry Rossoshanskaya black is a rather unpretentious plant, winters well and withstands drought. It was only with self-pollination that the yield was at a low level, so I planted other subspecies nearby. Now I am completely satisfied with the black Rossoshanskaya cherry. "