Fertilizing cucumbers - all about fertilizers for open field
Cucumbers began to grow a very, very long time ago. The plant is a vegetable that people began to plant back in ancient times in Europe, one of the very first. It is believed that the cucumber was brought from India and domesticated by Europeans. No one is waiting for the cucumber to fully ripen, since young fruits have better taste than ripe ones. In homemade preparations, they usually use fruits that are just starting to develop, called gherkins.
Cucumbers can be propagated both by seed and seedlings.
They are also grown either in a greenhouse or outdoors. In this case, the variety of the plant, as well as the procedure for caring for it, matters. Fertilizing cucumbers is one of the most important components of plant health and a good harvest.
Cucumbers planting, fertilizers, growing conditions
This culture loves warmth, light and sun. In this regard, cucumbers are planted in the soil after the time when the snow thaws, frosts go away and the earth warms up, at least to 15 degrees. It is also important to wait until the end of return frosts, because there are regions, for example the Urals, where frosts can return in May and even in June.
Like any tropical plant, cucumber is a very moisture-loving plant. To create a moist warm growing environment, it will be necessary, at least for the first time, to cover the plants planted in the open field with some kind of non-woven material or film. This will give you the warmth you want. You should not plant cucumbers several times in a row in the same place. For a high-quality harvest, it is advisable to constantly change the place. The best precursors for planting cucumbers would be potatoes, peas, and tomatoes. It is undesirable to plant cucumbers in the garden where melons and gourds used to grow. It is permissible to plant in the beds, where carrots, peppers, onions and any siderates also grew before.
When growing cucumbers on open ground, one should not forget about feeding the plant. At least three times a season. If the soil is not fertile, then the amount of fertilizing should be increased.
Cucumber tends to grow and develop better on light, loose fertile soils, and also loves sandy and sandy loam compositions. The harvest will be very good here, but it will take a lot of effort while caring for the plants. Although it is difficult to care for loose soil, the roots of the plant are regularly supplied with oxygen, which has a beneficial effect on the development of the plant.
Plant propagation and care
If you are planting seedlings, then when about 3 or 4 true leaves have already appeared on the seedlings, the seedlings can be transplanted into open ground, since the plants have already grown stronger and better adapt to the new place.
If you are planting plants with seeds, then they must be discarded and also carefully prepared before planting. For about a whole month, you need to put the seeds in the warmest place in the apartment, for example, near a radiator or stove. Next, you need to place the seeds in a weak solution of manganese or garlic to disinfect them. It will also be helpful to place the seeds in a solution of some kind of fertilizer, mineral or organic, for about 12 hours. If all these activities are completed, then for 2 days we send the seeds back to a warm place and cover with a wet cloth. The seeds should not be allowed to germinate.Then place the seeds in the refrigerator for about one day. All these activities are done so that there are as few empty flowers as possible.
If you purchased a special hybrid variety in the store, then there is no need to do preparatory work here, since these crops always give a good harvest.
As mentioned above, cucumbers love moisture, so it is necessary, especially in dry summers, to irrigate the land regularly. And it is best to arrange drip irrigation.
The key to a good harvest of cucumbers is also regular fertilization of cucumbers that grow in the open field. All fertilizers are needed: both organic and mineral - phosphorus and nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and sulfur are needed.
You should, as often as possible, pluck the fruits that are gaining strength. Two, maybe more than two times a week to stimulate the plants to produce new fruits.
Please note that if you bought crossed varieties, then you should not collect the seeds of these cucumbers for planting next year, since their characteristics are only calculated for 1 season.
Organic fertilizers for feeding cucumbers
Next, we will consider in more detail the fertilization of cucumbers grown in the open field with organic fertilizers. There are several options here.
- Chicken manure and mullein are high in nitrogen and potassium.
- Ash nourishes with microelements - phosphorus and potassium.
- In addition, you can make an infusion of weeds or green manure, or other unnecessary vegetation. This will also make an organic fertilizer.
- To supply plants with phosphorus, you need bone meal or fish meal.
In order for the plants to receive a full range of fertilizers, it is recommended to use and alternate all of the above methods. Since some formulations contain certain substances that are not in other fertilizers and vice versa.
It is very good to use compost, both for cucumbers and other plants. It is the optimal natural fertilizer for cucumbers that you can make yourself. It is necessary to use manure or droppings only in the form of a solution, or rotted, because, using fresh compounds, there is a risk of getting a root burn.
Compost is made in the following way. In a special tank, soil and manure are laid out in layers, followed by a layer of food waste. There may be peels from potatoes and other vegetables, fruit stubs, unnecessary bread and sour milk, and more. Weeds or used green manure are folded on top.
Thus, this whole mixture must be at least 12 months old. It is necessary to periodically pierce the layers so that air can enter there and the bacteria involved can be active, while forming a nutrient medium. Some people additionally buy and use special bacteria to increase the amount of organic matter.
When the compost is ready, you should smell the earth and not any decaying food. The land should be free of any insects or their larvae. The prepared compost will be an excellent fertilizer not only for cucumbers grown in the open field, but also for all other plants.
Fertilizing cucumbers with fresh manure - it is important to wait until autumn, when the crop is harvested, since this fertilizer acts very sharply on plants, one might even say aggressively. Having withstood the fertilization in autumn, winter and spring, you can be sure that you will not harm the plants, since the excess nitrogen will already evaporate, as well as the bacteria will have time to deal with the manure, and will transfer it to a phase that is comfortable for plants.
Bone meal is purchased from specialized stores. There is no strict rule for this fertilizer when it is added to the soil. Fertilizing cucumbers can be done at any time of the year, except for winter. The optimal period will be autumn. First, there is no need to worry about the harvest, since it has already been harvested.Also, you still have to dig the soil at this time, so you can add bone meal.
There are many types of ash. It differs from each other in terms of the content of substances. There is a large amount of phosphorus in coniferous ash, and there is a lot of calcium in deciduous ash. This fertilizer for cucumbers has a prolonged effect, since it nourishes the roots of the plant for another six months after it was added to the soil. It is very useful to use this fertilizer if the soil is acidic. Thus, the ash neutralizes it, which cucumbers will really like.
The effect after using the fertilizer with wood ash, you can notice after eating the fruit. Fruits from plants fertilized with ash are much tastier, there is no bitterness in them, because during ripening, the fruits need potassium, which is just the same contained in the ash.
Mineral fertilizers for feeding cucumbers
As for mineral fertilizers, here they are also purchased in specialized stores in complex preparations and separately.
Those who know a lot about gardening can compose fertilizers themselves, taking into account the composition of the soil.
If you suddenly notice that cucumbers grow slowly, that they look weak and unhealthy, then here you need to use a complex mineral fertilizer. It is important not only to water the bush, but also to spray the leaves. This will help the nutrients work much faster. It is important here to pay attention to the composition of the soil. If there is a lot of clay in the soil or it is peat, then potassium is simply needed here, which will improve your yield, despite the difficult growing conditions.
For cucumbers grown in the open field, mineral complexes, superphosphate, urea, and saltpeter are needed.
Here you need to use the instructions on the package and calculate the required amount of fertilizer. It is important not to overdo it or harm the plants. In addition, non-observance of the rules, the name and the required dose of the drug will not only lead to the death of the plant, but can also cause significant harm to the person himself.
So that the fruits do not accumulate a large amount of harmful nitrates, it is necessary to stop adding mineral fertilizers to the soil about half a month before the planned harvest.
Fertilizing cucumbers with microelements
As mentioned above, one of the components of the fertilizer for cucumbers is trace elements. You can also buy them in specialized stores. Most often they are sold in solutions. Thus, microelements help to stimulate the immune system of cucumbers, protect plants from diseases and affect the taste of fruits.
The leaves of the plant are treated with a solution of trace elements, and sometimes they are added to the composition of the main fertilizers for root feeding. In addition, spraying plants with microelements can significantly improve its appearance.
Solutions of trace elements must also be applied throughout the season regularly, or immediately, as soon as you notice an unimportant type of plant. If the soil is loose, light and sandy, then it is necessary to apply fertilizer many times in small portions. And if it is heavy, you can do feeding no more than 3 times.
General processing of cucumbers greatly affects the development of the crop, since nutrients are supplied much faster in this way than if fertilized only at the root. So, if you see that the leaves turn yellow, they look unhealthy or fly around altogether, or if you notice that the cucumber does not bear fruit, then foliar feeding will come to the rescue.
Cucumber is vulnerable to many fungal diseases, therefore, here, too, it is important to take timely measures and treat the plants with a solution of copper sulfate. This must be done when the first signs form, otherwise you risk completely losing the harvest.When a plant grows in one place for a long time, microorganisms living in the soil begin to infect crops growing nearby. Here it is necessary to carry out treatment with fungicides or special agents that are rich in active microflora. For example, Baikal EM1 or EM5. And also it is necessary to destroy the sprouted shoots.
If you have an excess of nitrogen fertilizers, then fungal diseases will also progress, as the soil sours.
Calcium and nitrogen addition
To fertilize plants with calcium and nitrogen, you can use ready-made preparations, as well as an infusion of herbs. The grass must be insisted on water, and the resulting slurry should be sprayed on the shoots. Processing is best done in the morning or evening.
Fertilizer for cucumbers - folk recommendations
High-quality care for cucumbers grown in the open field also includes a constant increase in ventilation in the soil, supplying it with oxygen. To do this, you should not only constantly loosen the ground, but also water the cucumbers with special solutions. Here are some popular recipes.
The yeast is dissolved in water, infused for two days, after which the plant is watered. This procedure should be carried out no more than 2 times in order to preserve nutrients in the soil.
Onion peels help a lot. It has a beneficial effect not only on cucumbers planted in the ground, but also on seedlings. This broth stimulates the immunity of the plant, and also enriches it with vitamins. To prepare a healing solution, it is necessary to make a decoction of the husk, insist and strain. Fertilizer is applied, both under the root and foliar processing.
Folk recipes for protecting cucumbers
In addition, there are several other ways to help protect outdoor cucumbers from common diseases and pests:
- Treatment of plant stems over the soil with iodine solution, diluted one to one.
- Regular soda diluted in 10 liters of water will help to get rid of such a disease as gray rot.
- Also, so that cucumbers are not attacked ants, should be treated with a solution of boric acid.
With the help of the listed methods, you will not only be able to protect plants from fungal diseases, but also fill the plant with the necessary supply of nutrients.
General fertilization rules
When feeding cucumbers in the open field, you must adhere to the following feeding scheme:
- After the first leaf has appeared on the seedlings, it is necessary to fertilize the plant with a complex preparation to stimulate and strengthen both the roots and the ground part. Regular wetting of the seedlings is also necessary.
- After the seedlings are planted in open ground, and the plants have already adapted enough (and this is about two weeks later), you should
treat plants with fungicides, urea or microelements. This will protect the plant from possible diseases.
- It is important to know that plants need potassium, which is involved in the formation of ovaries, therefore, before flowering a cucumber, you need to make any potassium fertilizers or, again, complex fertilizers. On the contrary, it is necessary at this time to reduce nitrogen fertilizers or completely eliminate them so that the plant stops spending energy on the formation of leaves and stems. If the soil is loose, sandy, then potassium fertilization is a mandatory procedure throughout the season.
- Further, closer to autumn, when the plant is already actively bearing fruit, depending on the variety, some special mixtures are introduced. If the plant is still bearing fruit, then it is necessary to fertilize the cucumbers with potassium-phosphorus mixtures. And if the plant has already finished growing, then it must be removed and burned.
- Further, after harvesting and all the plants, it is necessary to start preparing the soil for the next new season. So, the garden bed should be dug up, manure, minerals, flour, and wood ash should be added to it.All elements must be evenly distributed over the area where the cucumbers will grow next year, and then dig everything up properly.
Summing up the article, we can say that when growing cucumbers in the open field, it is necessary to pay special attention not only to watering, but also to regularly feed the crops with fertilizers. Various fertilizers, both organic and mineral, should be used and alternated. One should not forget about the influence of the soil, on the composition of which the choice of certain fertilizers will depend.