Ternos (Pninus Insititia), also called blackthorn, is a cross between plum and blackthorn crops. As a result, a fruit tree appeared, inheriting from its wild parent the unpretentious nature and composition of the fruit, which includes useful elements.
To date, breeders attribute the thorny plum to one of the subspecies of home plum, although it was previously considered as one of the varieties of blackthorn. There were several names
thorns, reminiscent of its relationship with thorns - "sweet thorns" or "dessert thorns".
It should be noted that thorny plum appeared without the participation of scientists, but by natural crossing of plums and thorns. This hybrid crop belongs to the Plum genus and is part of the Pink family.
Having appreciated the beneficial qualities of blackthorn fruits, breeders began to purposefully develop new varieties of this fruit plant. This article will focus on the beneficial qualities of the fruits of the thorny plum, on the most famous varieties of this hybrid plant, as well as on the basic rules for its cultivation.
Ternoslum: description of the variety and its characteristics
Ternoslum has a number of similarities with each of its parents. And if the fruits bring it closer to the home plum, then the appearance of the tree was largely inherited from the wild-growing shrub. The blackthorn is sometimes confused with the blackthorn, although it has its own distinctive features. The similarities and differences between the two plants will be discussed below.
Ternosplum is a shrub plant: its branching shoots can grow up to 4 m in height. The foliage consists of small (only about 5 cm long) leaves that are elliptical and jagged. The flowering period of the blackthorn begins quite early. The flowers are snow-white in color and about 3 cm in diameter, bloom before the leaves appear completely. Located singly, they open up in large numbers, forming a lush white crown of bushes.
During the fruiting period, spherical fruits are formed, painted in dark blue or black and covered with a bloom resembling wax. The average weight of the fetus is
about 15 g, the average diameter is about 4 cm. Under the thin peel there is a dense, sweet-sour pulp with tart notes that hides a bone. The astringency of the fruits depends on how long they are on the branches: the longer - the sweeter they are, the less bitter notes in their taste.
Features of culture
Ternoslum possesses a number of distinctive features obtained from its parents and constituting a combination of properties characteristic of this hybrid.
First of all, thorny plum is famous for its fertility. The fruiting period occurs in late summer and early autumn, when numerous fruits are formed on the branches. They are firmly attached to the branches and are able to survive on them until the winter cold.
Another advantage of the blackthorn is its resistance to frost - one of the highest among fruit plants. Ternoslum is able to withstand temperatures as low as -40 degrees. In case of frostbite of the plant root system, recovery occurs very quickly.
The blackthorn successfully tolerates dry periods: the surface of its bark is not damaged by exposure to sunlight. In general, thorny plum is very hardy and takes root safely even in regions with unfavorable climatic conditions, as well as on rather poor soils.
Diseases common among fruit crops practically do not pose a danger to thorns, which have high immunity. It also successfully resists attacks by harmful insects.
Thus, the thorny plum is distinguished by its ability to cope with any difficulties associated with the conditions of its environment. The only danger to it is represented by swampy places, as well as salty soils, on which this culture does not take root. In all other cases, it gives abundant growth, which quickly captures the nearby space. For this reason, it is categorically not recommended to place valuable plants next to the thorny one.
Thorns and thorns - what is the difference?
Ternoslum has many similarities with its parents - thorns and home plums. The healthy fruits of wild thorns cannot boast of a pleasant taste, so crossing with homemade plums gave the resulting fruits of the hybrid culture a pleasant sweetness. At the same time, they retained most of the beneficial properties of thorn fruits.
The fruits of the blackthorn, as a rule, are much larger than the fruits of the blackthorn, they have a juicy sweet pulp that has lost almost all the astringency of the latter. The shoots of thorny plum do not have thorns characteristic of thorns that make harvest difficult, which increases the popularity of this hybrid crop among gardeners.
In terms of their chemical composition, the fruits of thorns and thorns are almost identical and differ mainly in the concentration of sugar in the pulp. If for the blackthorn it is from 5% to 6%, then for the thorny one this indicator fluctuates between 12% and 14%.
Territory growing area
In the wild, thorny plum grows in the southwestern part of Asia. The homeland of this hybrid plant is Syria, where it received the name "Damascus plum". From Syria, the ternovka was transported to the British Isles, from where it penetrated into Europe.
Due to its resistance to severe frost and drought, it has successfully taken root in the regions most unsuitable for horticulture. Today, this hybrid culture has become widespread and is grown in the gardens of Europe, North America, Western and South Asia, and northern Africa.
Varieties of thorny plums
Despite the fact that blackthorn is the result of natural crossing of wild thorns and domestic plums, breeders are engaged in
breeding new varieties of this hybrid plant in order to convey to them the main advantages of the parent plants and improve their qualities.
First of all, we are talking about resistance to unfavorable weather conditions and about the taste of fruits, as well as about an increase in the volume of the harvested crop. This article will
the characteristics of the most popular varieties of ternoslums are presented.
Ternos plum grade "Burluksky"
One of the most productive varieties of ternoslums is the "Burluksky" variety. During the harvest season, which falls in September, up to 25 kg of fruit, colored in a rich dark purple color, can be obtained from one plant. The plants themselves are not very tall.
Ternos plum variety "Large-fruited"
The recognized champion among thorns is the Large-fruited variety, which gives up to 30 kg from each tree. The average plant height varies between 300 and 350 cm. The harvesting period, as in the case of the "Burluksky" variety, falls on the first month of autumn.
During this period, purple oval fruits ripen on the trees, having a fresh sweet-sour taste with tart notes inherited from the wild-growing ancestor - blackthorn. Among other advantages of this variety, such a property as self-fertility stands out.
Ternosplum grade "Uzbek"
Another recognized favorite among the varieties of ternos is the fruitful "Uzbek" variety.Each tree bears about 25 kg of deep purple-black fruit. The fruiting period lasts throughout September.
Ternosplum grade "Tenkovskaya blue"
Less productive, but recognized by scientists and gardeners, varieties include "Tenokovskaya blue" thorny plum. From each tree, differing in average growth, you can collect from 12 to 14 kg of fruit. Their characteristic features are sweet and sour taste and rich purple color. The ripening period of the fruit also falls in September.
Ternos plum variety "Large-fruited early"
Unlike the "Large-fruited" ternoslum, "Kpupnoplodnaya early" cannot boast of impressive harvest volumes. However, it has another positive quality that distinguishes this variety of thorns among others - a rather early ripening period.
Colored in a deep purple color, the fruit has a slightly tart taste, reminiscent of the taste of thorns. In August, each tree about 250 cm tall bears 11 to 13 kg of fruit.
Ternos plum grade "Autumn"
This variety, as its name implies, belongs to the late-ripening varieties of the thorny plum. Tall trees of the "Autumn" blackthorn bear oval-shaped fruits, whose skin is colored blue and the flesh is green.
Ternoslum grade "Volzhsky"
This variety belongs to the self-fertile varieties of blackthorn. Its dark blue fruits, as they ripen, lose the characteristic blackthorn flavor and become sweet.
Ternosplum grade "Solyanovsky"
One of the most successful hybrids is the "Solyanovskaya" ternoslum due to the successful combination of the qualities most attractive to fruit crops: stability
to winter frosts, high yields and impressive fruit sizes. The latter have high taste in spite of the tart notes that are traditional for many varieties of blackthorns.
Ternos plum grade "Super-abundant"
The "Super-abundant" ternosplum is characterized by a fast ripening period of fruits, which are characterized by a dark blue, almost black color. The trees of this variety are not very tall, but they are impressive in the volume of the harvest.
Ternosplum grade "Garden No. 2"
Another success of breeders is the Garden No. 2 variety, which combines such important qualities as the ability to withstand severe cold snaps, high yield rates and the pleasant taste of large fruits.
Plum plant: benefits and harms
The combination of its unpretentious nature with the rich chemical composition of the fruit makes the thorny plum a valuable fruit crop. Without making any special efforts, every gardener can grow a tree on his site, the fruits of which are a source of valuable vitamins and amino acids, mineral elements and tannins, as well as pectin, monosaccharides and coumarins.
Among merits blackthorn fruit refers to the ability to dilate blood vessels, thereby preventing thrombus formation, due to which the human cardiovascular system improves its work.
The elements contained in thorny plum fruits have a beneficial effect on the work of the gastrointestinal tract. With their help, the body gets rid of toxins, removes toxins and inhibits the accumulation of radioactive substances in tissues. All these beneficial properties of blackthorn work on the general strengthening of immunity and the establishment of metabolism.
Due to the low level of calories they contain, thorny fruits are recommended for use by overweight people as a dietary food product.
However, as in the case of other fruit crops, the blackthorn has a number of contraindications by eating its fruits.
First of all, this applies to people suffering from allergic reactions to substances contained in plums.In addition, the sour thorn fruit is not recommended for those who have problems with the acidity level in the stomach. Blackthorn fruits should not be eaten with acute gastritis and exacerbation of stomach ulcers.
Not all parts of the thorny fruit are safe to eat. It is categorically not recommended to eat bones due to the high content of toxic substances that can cause serious poisoning of the body.
Eating large amounts of blackthorn fruit also poses some danger, because despite the low calorie content, they still contain a fairly large amount of sugar, which is unsafe for people suffering from obesity and diabetes.
According to the recommendation of nutritionists, the weekly intake of blackthorn fruit is only 0.2 kg, and it should not be eaten at one time. It is optimal to stretch this amount for a week, observing an interval of at least 2 or even 3 days between meals with the participation of thorny fruits. In addition, eating them on an empty stomach can lead to severe stomach and intestinal upset and diarrhea.
Blackthorn fruits are rarely eaten fresh, since almost all varieties of this culture are characterized by the presence of tart notes. For this reason, thorns are much more often used for making preserves, jams, compotes.
Planting instructions for thorny plums
In order to get a rich harvest of tasty fruits from the thorny plum, it is necessary to follow certain agrotechnical recommendations concerning, among other things, planting the plant.
Breeding methods for thorny plums
There are several ways to propagate blackthorns, among which only the seed propagation method is used for breeding purposes. Other methods are vegetative, namely cuttings, propagation by grafting, root growth method.
The most popular among gardeners are seedlings obtained by reproduction through the root shoots, also called self-rooted seedlings. Harvesting of root shoots is carried out ahead of time - in spring or autumn.
To obtain seedlings, only the strongest basal shoots, as far as possible from the mother plant, are suitable. In this case, they have a developed and completely independent root system. Therefore, their separation from the trunk of the main tree will be as safe and painless as possible for both the shoots and the parent plant.
After separating the overgrowth and removing it from the ground, it is necessary to carefully examine its roots. If they are sufficiently developed, the seedling is ready to be planted in a permanent place. If the root system of a young plant is not fully formed, it must be grown.
For this purpose, the growing shoot must be shortened by 0.2-0.25 m and immersed in the substrate at the cut point. Thus, the shoots will develop until next fall, after which it can be transplanted to a place of permanent residence.
This method of breeding thorny plum is suitable only for small areas. In the case of a large horticultural enterprise that needs a large number of trees, it does not give the desired result.
For large-scale cultivation of blackthorn seedlings, the method is suitable vaccinations. In general, it is more difficult than propagation by root shoots, however, it is characterized by higher productivity. In order to propagate a blackthorn by grafting, one should start by growing rootstocks, onto which the blackthorn will be grafted later. For the stock, winter-hardy varieties of homemade plums or felt cherries are used.
Site location and soil composition
The choice of the site and the chemical composition of the soil present on it is of primary importance for the successful cultivation of thorny plum seedlings. As for the location of the territory for planting blackthorns, it does not play a fundamental role.The unpretentious thorny plum successfully takes root almost everywhere, regardless of the amount of sunlight and the terrain.
Often, the planting of blackthorns serves as a natural hedge. They are located around the perimeter of the garden area, and also used as a protective hedge for other, more delicate crops that suffer from the effects of strong winds.
The composition of the soil suitable for growing thorns can be quite variable. At the same time, the blackthorn prefers loamy soils, prepared and fertilized in advance. The processing of the site is recommended to be carried out in the fall, in the second half of it. Before the planned planting of seedlings, there must be at least two months. The soil on the site should be thoroughly dug up and fertilized with a nutrient mixture.
You can prepare it yourself by mixing the following components per 1 square meter:
- 8 kg of manure;
- 50 g superphosphate;
- from 30 to 40 g of potassium salt.
The nutrient complex must be well mixed with the soil on the site. It will not be superfluous to check the level of its acidity. For a value below 5.5 pH, a little lime is recommended.
Planting thorny plums - step by step instructions
Best suited for planting in open ground are thorny seedlings aged 2 to 3 years. As a rule, planting is done in springtime: in the last days of April and early May. Below is a detailed algorithm for planting blackthorn seedlings.
- First of all, in the area set aside for planting blackthorns, it is necessary to dig planting holes. Their average diameter is at least 0.7 m, depth - 0.5 m. It is important that the root system of the seedling is placed in them together with an earthen clod. The gap between the pits should be from 4 to 4.5 m in order to exclude crowding in the area when the seedlings grow up. In each planting hole, it is necessary to add a nutrient substrate, which is a thoroughly mixed complex. It contains such components as humus (5 kg), superphosphate (0.1 kg), wood ash (1 glass), lime (1 handful), potassium sulfate (40 g).
- On top of the mixture, garden soil is poured, extracted when digging planting holes. Together with the nutrient mixture, it should fill the well halfway.
- It is recommended to treat the root system of blackthorn seedlings with a root formation stimulator shortly before planting. Then they can be placed in the planting holes, carefully spreading the root processes.
- The free space of the landing holes must be filled with the remnants of the earth, tamping it tightly. It is impossible to deepen the neck of the seedling - it should be 2-3 cm above the ground level.
- Having finished planting, you need to thoroughly shed the near-trunk diameter with water and mulch the surface of the earth.
- Immediately after planting, the first pruning of the young thorny plum is carried out: the bushes are shortened so that their height is no more than 0.8 m.
- Since thorny plum has a high spreading rate due to its fast-growing root growth, it is able to capture nearby
territory. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended to create a barrier that will not allow overgrowth to spread. To do this, along the perimeter of the area occupied by the blackthorn, you need to dig into the ground to a meter depth of sheets of slate or iron.
Ternoslum: care and cultivation
The undemanding nature of thorny plums allows you not to spend excessive efforts on caring for it. The simplest and most familiar procedures for any gardener are enough for this fruit crop to feel good on the site and give a bountiful harvest. In general, caring for a blackthorn differs little from caring for a home plum and even requires less hassle.
A traditional procedure aimed at maintaining the necessary air and moisture circulation in the soil is to loosen the near-stem diameter around thorny trees.Excessive deepening is undesirable, since there is a high probability of damage to the root shoots of the plant, which can result in disease and, in some cases, death of the tree.
In the first years of life, the blackthorn does not need additional fertilizing. You should start fertilizing the soil on the site no earlier than the time of the first harvest. As a rule, this does not happen earlier than 3-4 years of plant life. After that, you can feed the thorny plum every autumn - in the last week of October.
It is recommended to apply fertilizers at the same time as digging up the soil, as well as pre-weed and, if possible, eliminate all weeds. For each square meter of the plot, a nutrient complex is introduced, which includes 5 kg of manure, 50 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulfate.
Having finished applying fertilizers, the soil must be dug up again, and then the soil in the near-trunk circle must be covered with a layer of mulch. For this purpose, straw, fallen leaves, sawdust are suitable.
Fertilizing during spring and summer also has a beneficial effect on the health of the thorny plum.
The following periods are considered the best time to apply fertilizing:
- Early spring, on the eve of flowering: nitroammophoska is introduced in the form of a solution at the rate of 1 tablespoon per 1 tree.
- At the end of the flowering period of the blackthorn: superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added in the form of a solution at the rate of a teaspoon of the active ingredient per 10 liters of water.
- After harvest: the soil is fertilized with wood ash - about 0.25 kg.
At first after planting, young thorny bushes need fairly frequent and abundant watering. Depending on the amount of precipitation in a certain period, they should be watered 1 to 2 times a week. As the blackthorn gets older, it needs less water, so it needs to be watered as needed.
This hybrid crop has inherited its resistance to short-term drought from wild thorns, so irregular watering will not have much effect on its health and yield.
The procedure for pruning thorny plums
Of all the activities associated with caring for a thorny one, pruning is the most troublesome. Some garden owners neglect this procedure, resulting in overgrowth of shoots. Pruning helps shape the crown of the tree, usually in tiers. Thus, the blackthorn takes the form of a bush.
Despite the laboriousness of this process, pruning plums should be cut at least 3 times during the season:
- the first pruning is carried out in the last days of March,
- the second - at the end of June,
- the third - at the end of July.
As a rule, pruning is aimed at forming the crown of the thorny plum and increasing the yield. However, this procedure has a number of purposes:
- Sanitary pruning aims to remove dry twigs, damaged and infested shoots.
- Rejuvenating pruning is carried out with the aim of improving the health of the tree and prolonging its life. During this procedure, some fruiting branches are removed; next season
all other skeletal branches are shortened by 1/3.
- Thinning pruning is designed to improve the access of sunlight to the fruits of thorny plums. To achieve this, too dense crown of the tree is thinned out by removing most of the fruiting shoots. It is recommended to leave 4 to 5 branches on which the fruits ripen. This will help avoid thickening of the crown and will also allow the remaining branches to yield larger, sweeter fruits.
- Molding pruning is recommended in cases where a neat and attractive appearance is very important. For example, when it is used to create
Ternoslum has the ability to quickly recover after frosty winters, when frostbite of last year's shoots occurs.Thanks to the rapid formation of fresh shoots, thorn trees are healed and rejuvenated naturally.
Shelter of thorny plums for the winter
The winter-hardy nature of the blackthorn allows it to winter safely without any shelter. The main threat to her in winter is not frost, but hungry rodents that damage the bark of fruit trees, for example, hares.
To protect the thorny plum from the attack of pests, it is recommended to wrap its trunk with a piece of roofing material, or with several layers of barbed wire.
Partial frostbite of the shoots of thorny plum is not scary for the general state of her health: young near-stem shoots contribute to the rapid recovery of the tree.
Harmful insects do not pose a threat to thorny plums, as well as most diseases affecting stone fruits. However, even such a persistent and unpretentious plant cannot be avoided. Below is a list of the most dangerous diseases for thorns and how to deal with them.
- The wilting of fresh shoots and subsequent damage to the blackthorn fruit is the result of an infestation of the tree. fruit rot. The surface of the fruit is first covered with spots, then necrosis develops. An effective means of combating this ailment is copper or iron sulfate.
- The increased humidity of the environment causes the development of a fungal infection called pockets of plums. The main sign of infection is an unprecedented increase in blackthorn fruit in size, as well as their deformation. At the same time, their pulp loses its main characteristics inherent in one or another variety, and the seeds are not formed at all. The main means of preventing and treating this fungal infection is Bordeaux mixture. It is necessary to sprinkle the affected tree twice with it - during the flowering period, and then during the ripening of the fruit.
- White streaks on the surface of the blackthorn foliage indicate a plant disease shark. As a result, the fruit pulp becomes very tough and unfit for human consumption, and concave circles and streaks form on the skin. The main way to prevent this infection is to regularly inspect thorny plums in order to detect harmful insects that carry sharki. The affected shoots must be removed in a timely manner, and the instrument used for pruning must be thoroughly disinfected.
- Reducing the size of leaves and deformation of their contours are called dwarfism. This disease is of viral origin and is rarely treatable. For this reason, the only way out is to remove the infected trees of the site along with the roots and then burn them to avoid the spread of the disease. The tool used in this case should be thoroughly disinfected so that during subsequent gardening work it does not provoke infection of other trees.
How thorny plum is harvested and how its fruits are stored
You can harvest thorny plums after the skin of the fruit acquires a color characteristic of a particular variety. It is recommended to use containers or boxes with a capacity of no more than 10 kg to collect blackthorn fruits. Their contents should be stacked in two layers.
If the fruits are planned to be consumed fresh or for the manufacture of food products, then they must be harvested ripe - after the onset of the so-called technical ripeness. If further transportation of fruits is to be carried out, then it is better to collect them before the onset of technical ripeness in order to prevent damage to ripe fruits during transportation. Collect them
it is necessary immediately after they begin to become soft and acquire a languid color.
Fruits of thorny plums, harvested ripe and left fresh, can be stored in a room with a cool air temperature for about 1 month.When stored in a refrigerator, this period is extended to 3 months.
The use of the fruits of the thorny plum
As mentioned above, the fruits of thorny plums are rarely eaten fresh - they are processed for the preparation of canned food, dried, and frozen. However, in addition to food use, they have another purpose. Due to the composition rich in vitamins and microelements, they can serve medicinal purposes.
In folk medicine, the fruits of thorns have long been used as a means of helping to cope with nausea with toxicosis of the body. Compresses are prepared from the rubbed fruits, which successfully treat calluses, abscesses, inflammation and wounds of the skin. Ternovka is a natural antiseptic, so its fresh fruit can help treat some common dental problems, such as bad breath.
In the pharmaceutical field, blackthorn has also gained recognition as a source of nutrients. Some of them are part of the preparations for the treatment of renal diseases, genitourinary dysfunction, gastrointestinal tract, and oral cavity.
In the food industry, the fruits of ternos are used as raw materials for the manufacture of vinegar and some types of alcoholic beverages.
Blackthorn bones are used for the production of activated carbon.
Finally, in the culinary field, the plum is widely used for making sauces, and also serves as an acidifier added to various dishes. In France, pickled blackthorn fruits are analogous to olives, since they have a similar appearance and taste characteristics to them.