This plant belongs to conifers, from the Pine genus. It includes about one hundred and twenty varieties. Pine grows in all northern regions of the Earth. Areas with a temperate climate are rich in forests, both in the mountains and on the plains. In an area with a subtropical climate, Sosu can be seen in the mountains. People say the name has three origin stories:
- From the Celtic translation it means "rock, mountain".
- From the Greek "pinos", Theophrastus said.
- From the Latin "resin".
The legend of Ancient Greece is known, it says that the pines appeared from the nymph of the morning dawn Pitis, the god of the wind from the north of Boreas was madly jealous of her, so he turned her into a tree. According to the inhabitants of China, such a tree protects the house from misfortune, brings health and love. Therefore, such a tree should be planted next to the house. At the moment, such a culture is very relevant among people, grown plants all over the planet, thus, experts combine and grow new types of pine (hybrids).
Pine - description and characteristics
This tree belongs to the evergreen types. Young trees have a conical crown, then the shape changes to circular or in the form of an umbrella. In appearance, several types can be identified: shrub, tree, creeping bush. The size of a tree in growth can be from two to fifty meters. roots can be anchor or core. On the trunk of the tree, the bark is brown, and the branches are ocher or pastel brown. Trees can be divided into two types, the former have elongated branches, while others are shortened. Coniferous trees have short branches. The branches are also divided into three groups according to the number of needles: two-coniferous (Scots pine), five-coniferous (Siberian pine), three-coniferous (Bunge pine). The sizes of the needles can be from fifty to ninety millimeters, they grow close to each other, in piles, two or five pieces each, they are also surrounded by a filmy vagina. Elongated branches have brown scaly leaves. It happens that rosette branches are formed on a tree, they are short or have bunches of short and wide needles.
If we consider the male and female branches, then the male ones are more like an ear, the female ones are symmetry with oblong cones, growing on the top of the tree. if the cones began to fall, it means that the seeds are ripe. The cone consists of fruit scales, located on top of each other, going up. The tips of the scales are covered with thickening. Seeds are winged or wingless. The wind helps to pollinate the tree. Seeds sit in a cone for up to four years. Such trees live for a long time. There are those who live for many thousands of years.
- WHEN TO PLANT?
To plant trees in the ground on the site, you need to pick up seedlings. We need exactly those who are already from three to five years old, since they have formed roots and are covered with earth. If the roots are cleaned of the earth, leaving in the sun, then the seedling will die within ten fifteen minutes. You need to purchase a plant only in special stores, bazaars, greenhouses, which are located in the lice territory.
The first step is to lower the roots of the seedling into the water, leave for three hours, but you do not need to pull the seedling out of the container, then proceed to planting. The date of the planting process is mid-spring, or from late summer to early fall.
- SEWING SEQUENCE
The pit should be about a hundred centimeters in size. The first layer should be a drainage system of twenty centimeters with rubble or cobblestones. The land must be prepared in advance.Thus, the composition of the earth should include clay, turf, mineral fertilizers. It is also necessary to add Kemira to the ground - a station wagon, Nitrofoski, mix everything. In order to remove acid from the soil, you need to add lime. We fill half of the hole with prepared soil, put a bush, do not forget to pull it out of the container, so that all the earth remains on the horses. Next, we fill the hole with earth, everything is done carefully, slowly.
After planting the seedling, a dump is mounted in the form of a fence, then twenty liters of water are filled into it. As soon as all the moisture is absorbed, the soil will sink, the neck from the root should be on the surface of the soil. If you planted a large seedling, then its neck of the roots should be outside at a distance of ten centimeters above the ground. In a few days it will go down. If you want to plant a large number of shrubs, then do it with a distance of four meters from each other, but if the trees are small, then the distance between them is about one hundred and fifty centimeters.
Pine: greenhouse care
This tree easily tolerates drought, so there is no need to moisten the soil, because it feeds on rain. But if the plant was planted a year ago or now, then the fall needs to be watered after the leaves fall. This must be done, because the soil with moisture during frost does not freeze as much as dry. Also, make sure that there is no stagnation, otherwise the roots will begin to rot and the tree will die. There is an exception to drought tolerance - this is Rumelian pine, it needs to be moistened two or three times a year with a volume of one and a half to two buckets of water.
In the first two years, young seedlings on the site are fed with nutrients. This is done once a year, the fertilizer is poured into a circle around the tree. further in this circle organic substances will accumulate, there will be enough of them for self-fertilization.
You do not need to cut off the shoots of the pine. But so that the plant does not grow so quickly and is always beautiful, gardeners recommend cutting off young shoots by one third of the length of the branch.
- HOW CORRECT TO REPROT THE PLANT?
The time for the procedure is spring. this is necessary, because conifers tolerate transplantation capriciously, they are slowly cultivated in a new place, and warmth is also needed.
To transplant pine from the forest to your site, you need to know the following. The first thing to note is the distance along the crown, then we dig out the plant carefully so as to injure the roots. The pit should be sixty centimeters deep, thirty to forty centimeters wide. Next, the seedling is taken out with a lump of earth and transported to its site at maximum speed. Attention! The roots of the plant during transportation must be in the ground, a clod of earth is needed. We shift the plant into a new hole, in which drainage, fertilizers and forest land mixed with humus have already been made. Remember that the size of the hole should be one and a half times larger than the pine roots. at the end it is necessary to cover the hole with earth and moisten. For the first two or three weeks, the plant should be moistened a couple of times a week.
Diseases and pests
Pine suffers more from insects than from viruses, improper use of agronomic equipment and care. Many owners of their trees do not understand why a healthy, in their opinion, tree began to turn yellow or even died. This can be due to the wrong planting date, or if the plant has been poorly cared for.
Pine most of all get sick with the fungal virus, this may be due to a large amount of moisture in the soil or due to a lack of light.
This is a common fungal disease. Symptoms are pronounced - the appearance of orange bubbles filled with spores on the crown of the tree. Be aware that this variety cannot be planted next to currants or gooseberries; it is also necessary to carry out preventive measures, sprinkle the tree from the polarizer with special solutions with the addition of copper.
- PINE VERTUNE
Symptoms are small yellowish blisters with a golden tint.Further branches begin to wriggle, wounds appear that have accumulated resin. For the fight, fungicides, micronutrient fertilizers, stimulants for immunity are used. Needles infected with such a virus must be collected and burned.
- RUST CANCER
This is the most terrible disease for a pine, here the tree cannot be saved, it dies. Symptoms - bark cracking, ocher-colored bubbles. Only a diseased tree can still be saved. The wound on the tree is cleaned to fresh tissue, then you need to spray the trunk with a solution of copper, then spread the Ranet paste on the affected area. Affected shoots are cut off, wounds are treated. The affected parts must be burned.
- UMBRELLA DISEASE
Damage to the buds on the crown of the tree, then the needles die, the virus quickly spreads through the tree. This can happen in the autumn, when it rains, a lot of moisture, and also occurs in the mountains. To combat the disease, you need to constantly cut off dead branches until the kidneys are not diseased.
- SNOW SHUTTE
This disease harms young crops that are less than eight years old. The period of illness is spring, as soon as the snow melts. Symptoms - a change in the color of the needles to a wine color, a fungus appears, then a white bloom. If the disease progresses, this means that the seedling or stalk has died. The pests entered through the infectious needles of the plant. Thus, it is necessary to collect all the infectious parts of the plant and burn it. Bushes need to be disinfected more than once, with solutions with the addition of copper. This can be done in May, and then from July to September.
- Bark necrosis
Symptoms - yellowing, dryness, branches and bark of the tree have died. Such a disease can appear after the winter period, when the tree's immune system is weak. In this case, the tree must be treated three times with special solutions. The first step is to remove plaque from the branches. This is done with a swab soaked in the preparation; it is also necessary to cut off all diseased branches.
If 4 compositions of pests:
- Those that suck vegetation from trees: aphids, hermes, conifers, pine scale insects, bedbugs, ticks.
- Those that gnaw trees: red pine sawflies, silkworms, caterpillars, moths.
- Those that harm cones: moths, resins.
- Pests that gnaw the bark and roots of a tree: bast beetles, longhorn beetles, golden beetles, elephants and smolens.
To combat such pests or for prevention, it is necessary to use the technique of agronomy correctly, care and prevention is necessary, you can spray the plant with special preparations from the dispenser.
Reproduction of pine
Breeding methods are varied. Unlike others, such methods are reliable and effective. The most relevant way is seeds.
Good seeds are needed for planting. You need to collect the cones in the middle of autumn, at which time the seeds will fully see through. Remember to pick the buds from the tree, not the soil. Next, the cones need to be dried by placing them on a battery or window in the sun on paper or a napkin. When the cones are dry, we take the seeds out of them. Next, the seeds need to be removed into jars, closed with a lid, and removed to a dark, cold room. Two or three months before planting, the seeds need to be checked, the bad ones should be thrown away, the good seeds should be put into a container and filled with water. Seeds that rise should be removed. Other seeds are stolen in a mixture of light pink color with potassium permanganate for half an hour. Then they wash the seeds, settle for twenty-four hours in water, then put them in moist soil. Then you can put the soil in kapronki and put it in the refrigerator for a month.
Seeds should be planted in mid-April. The soil does not have to be heavy, nor does it need to be nourished. River sand, aged in the oven for twenty minutes at two hundred degrees, can serve as soil. Sand is poured into the container, then sawdust, then seeds are poured, but note that the elongated end should be in the soil. Next, you can fill the container with needles ranging in size from ten to fifteen millimeters.Sprinkle soil and seeds from the dispenser, then cover with a bag. Seedlings may be already in April, but also later. Seedlings need to be moistened and ventilated, you also need to make sure that there is no drop of moisture on the bag.
As soon as the first shoots appear, the container should be placed on a window in the sun so that the seedlings are warm, it is necessary to regulate the gusts of wind so that the plant does not blow. A little later, the seedlings must be transplanted into the ground for growing pine. Pines are planted in the ground on a plot only after two or three years in the spring, when planting it is worth observing the distance between the pits from thirty to fifty centimeters. It is recommended to do everything very carefully, the main thing is not to touch the roots, you also need to make sure that the earth does not crumble from them, with this lump it will be easier for the plant to develop and take root. The roots are slightly pruned, then put in a mixture of fertilizer and earth. Moisturize so that it looks like thick. Next, the seedlings are planted in prepared holes. Moisturizing is done once a week. After watering, the soil is loosened, you also need to weed the ground around. In the next season, the tree must be impregnated with twenty-five grams of phosphate, also add five hundred grams of organic matter, ten grams of potassium. The humus should be placed ten centimeters deep. After four years of formation, the plant can be transplanted to its permanent growth site in spring or September.
The time of the procedure is autumn, cloudy weather. The branches are cut in size from eighty to one hundred and twenty millimeters, be sure to cut off the crown of the trees that look towards the north. Also, the cuttings are not cut, but as if cut off with a sharp movement, it is important to leave a piece of bark.
The twigs are cleaned, then put in a mixture of Fundazol with potassium permanganate for four to six hours. Prior to this, the tips of the cuttings are processed in Kornevin's infusion. Twigs are planted in the soil of fertilizers, leaves and sand. They sit not straight, but at an angle, then they close them with a scoop or a funnel made from a bottle, this is something like a greenhouse. The plant needs daily airing, the lid is removed from above for the poet. In winter, the plant can be placed in the cellar, and in the spring it can be kept outside. The roots grow for one and a half or four and a half months, at the same time small branches and roots develop. At the end of spring, the roots should be watered with Kornevin's mixture, this strengthens and helps the development of the roots. Pine seedlings should be planted a year later.
This method is used only by specialists, or people who have been in gardening for a large number of years. This method will help the plant to transfer all heredity from descendants, all the traits, appearance, and so on.
In the form of a rootstock, we need a tree that is five years old, which should be cut with a growth that is from one to three years old. All needles are removed from the branch, they should be left only at the buds at the top. The rootstock remains without buds and with cut off branches.
The time of the procedure is spring or early summer. At this time, the pine is attached to last year's branch, in the summer - to this year's branch.
How the pine endures the winter
- HOW CORRECT TO CARE FOR A PLANT IN AUTUMN?
Pines are neutral towards winter, everyone tolerates severe frosts, there is only one exception - Thunberg pines. As soon as cold weather sets in, development in trees falls, but does not stop. Therefore, trees need to be prepared for the winter period. You can do this at the end of autumn before frost, you need to make moisture, which will charge the soil. With a seedling size of about one hundred centimeters, watering consists of twenty liters of water, if the plant is taller, then thirty to fifty liters of water will be needed. First of all, they make a groove around the tree, this will not allow water to disperse throughout the landing site. In young plants, the roots have not yet formed, therefore, for such seedlings, moisture for the winter does not matter.Also, the bushes need to be pruned, it depends on the variety and shape of the plant, as well as its frost tolerance.
Remember, it is forbidden to fertilize the soil with a composition with nitrogen in August, since the grass, on the contrary, will begin to grow. And in the autumn period, it is necessary for already grown shoots to form, because in winter the plant can die. In order for the plant to be covered with bark, at the beginning of autumn, the plant is fed with phosphorus and potassium, this also makes the roots strong and healthy.
Shrubs should be mulched before winter. You can do this with crushed bark. In this way, the air will pass into the soil to the roots, and when the snow melts, the water will not stand in the ground, this will avoid stagnation in the soil, and the roots will not rot.
- HOW TO PREPARE THE PLANT FOR WINTER CORRECTLY?
With a large amount of snow in winter, the tree can be injured, the twigs will drop from the severity, also not far from the cracks. Do not shake the branches of the tree in winter, as at this time the branches are thin, and fractures may appear. You can remove drifts from a tree using brushes, from tip to trunk. To remove snow from the upper branches, a long stick is needed, one side is wound with a rag, then one branch is pryed off, and it can be shaken. Cracks in the tree appear due to ice on the branches, the time of appearance is spring, when the temperature is above zero during the day, and at night - minus. To prevent this from happening, you need to put pegs in the form of a support, this is done when not one crop is grown, but several.
There are many varieties of culture that are complex in their structure and development. Not all specialists are able to analyze this plant, especially when new hybrids appear every year. Next, we will talk about several types of pine that are relevant in gardens and summer cottages.
This variety is known from the Americas, located in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, dry areas of Utah, Nevada, California. The size of such a plant reaches up to fifteen meters, in European regions it can grow to the same size. Also, plants of this variety are in the form of a bush, at this moment the tree is still young, the bark has not acquired brown color and roughness, the older, the rougher. The twigs are shortened and grow upwards. The needles are kept close to each other quite tightly, they are poisonous green in beauty, ranging in size from twenty to forty millimeters. At the age of twenty, oval-shaped cones appear on the tree, ranging in size from forty to ninety millimeters. This variety needs a lot of sun, the plant is not capricious when transplanting to any place, it is also calm towards drought, but it has a negative attitude towards smoke. Tree shapes:
- Bashful is a tree with a rounded crown.
- Joz Best is a tree with a trapezoidal crown.
- Rezak Doll is a scattered crown in the form of a trapezoid.
- Sherwood Compact is a short tree with a medium trapezoidal crown.
The tree has been known since 1866 in North America. The size of the plant reaches a height of twenty-six meters. young trees in the form of a trapezoid, eventually changing to the shape of a ball. Initially, the bark is fragile, brown, then becomes stale with scales. Shoots are wavy, sag, grow at an angle, sharply upward. Branches of young trees of brown color, branches are also without bark, mossy. The size of the needles reaches from thirty to seventy millimeters, they grow in heaps of five needles. Poisonous green in color. The needles are able to stay on the twigs for up to five to six years. The size of the bumps is up to fifteen centimeters, oval in shape, light brown or ocher in color. Forms:
- Glenmore - the needles of this tree are larger than those of the usual, blue in color with a silvery sheen.
- Nana is a small bush. The size of the needles is about thirty millimeters.
- Pendula - the size of the plant is about two hundred centimeters. The branches are down.
- Tiny Temple is a small plant.The size of the needles is from sixty to seventy millimeters, the color is emerald, initially blue with a silvery tint.
The plant can be found in the European part. The size of this variety is from ten to fifteen meters. Branches are brown. The needles are green on one side and bluish on the other. The size of the cones is from fifty to eighty millimeters, the diameter is from forty to sixty millimeters. It tolerates the winter season, lives a large number of years, loves the shade. Forms:
- Single-leaved - undersized bush, needles grow close to each other in five heaps.
- Green - needles of bright green color.
- Golden - needles glossy ocher flowers.
- Variegated - needles of a golden color.
- Aureovariyegata - the color of the needles in different colors of yellow.
- Glauka - the crown of a tree in the form of a trapezoid, needles of a blue shade with a golden tint.
- Globe - the size of this shrub is about two hundred centimeters.
- Pygmea and Nana - the size of such plants is from forty to sixty centimeters, the shoots are shortened, fragile, the needles are similar to the needles of the dwarf tree.
- Stricta - the crown of the tree is cylindrical, the branches grow vertically pressed tightly.
CEDAR PINE EUROPEAN
This variety is located in the north and east of Korea, on the shores of the Amur, in Japan. The size of this tree reaches forty meters, and its diameter is from one hundred to one hundred and fifty centimeters. Shoots look up. The bark is dense, gray or brown. The branches growing at the top have small villi. The needles grow in piles, each pile contains five pieces, on one side the color is green, and on the other is bluish. The cones are ten to fifteen centimeters in size and five to nine centimeters in diameter. The culture has been known since one thousand eight hundred and forty-six. The tree loves warmth so it can be grown in gardens and also tolerates urban conditions. The soil for planting must be moist. Forms:
- Variegated - needles of golden or spotted color.
- Curved - wavy needles, this is noticeable at the ends of the shoots.
- Glauka - the size of the culture reaches up to ten meters. Crowns in the form of a trapezoid, size from three to five meters. Gray needles grow in piles of five. Male bumps are yellow in color. Their size is from ten to fifteen centimeters. Initially, the color is light brown, then dark purple, and with age, the tree takes on a wine color.
- Silverrey - long bluish needles with a silver tint.
- Anna is a crown in the form of a large circle.
- Winton is a stunted shrub, the size of which is about two hundred centimeters, the crown can grow up to four hundred centimeters.
- Variegata - yellow or spotted needles.
This variety is located in the regions of Western Siberia, Korea, Japan, in the Far East, in the north and east of China. In appearance, an unusual tree, in the northern part they are called cedar, when the trees lie, they are called the jungle. The plant grows up to five meters in size. The branches are intertwined with each other, lowered to the soil. Shoots are clawed. The color of the branches is initially olive, then brown-gray, at the top of the crown you can see an orange tint. Emerald needles, up to ten centimeters in size, grow in piles, five pieces each. The buds are dark purple in color and then turn brown. A plant has been known since one thousand eight hundred and seven. Such a tree loves light, tolerates the cold season, viruses and rodents, and is not squeamish about the soil. Forms:
- Glauka - plant size up to one hundred and fifty centimeters, crown size up to three meters. The needles are blue with a silvery sheen. The branches are strong.
- Chlorocapra - The size of the tree is similar to that of a regular pine. The needles are green, and the cones are yellow.
- Draiers Dwarf is a small plant with bluish needles, conical crown shape.
- Dwarf Blue is a short, wide tree with blue needles ranging in size from thirty to forty millimeters.
- Globe is a fast growing tree.Its size reaches two hundred centimeters. The crown also grows up to two hundred centimeters. Emerald needles.
- Yedello - the crown is wide in the middle with a depression. The needles grow close to the twigs, the top of them are green, and the bottom is light blue.
- Nana - the crown is quite dense brown. The needles are bright green with a silvery sheen.
- Sapphire - growing unevenly. Small bluish needles.
This variety can be found in European regions, as well as in Siberia. The size reaches from twenty to forty meters. The tree is upright. Crowns in the form of a trapezoid, with development it changes to a rounded one, sometimes in the form of an umbrella. The needles are wavy, about sixty millimeters in size, the color is green. Cones, pointed upwards, oval, about seventy millimeters in size, up to thirty-five millimeters in diameter. The tree needs lighting, tolerates cold winters, does not like air smoke. The tree grows quickly, which is rare among these varieties. Forms:
- Alba - the size of the plant reaches up to twenty meters, the needles are blue with a silver tint, the crown is in the form of an umbrella.
- Albino is a low-growing plant, green needles with a grayish tint.
- Aurea - the size of the bush reaches up to one hundred centimeters, the crown is oval. Small needles are green with a yellow tint, and older needles with gold.
- Compress - the size of a tree is up to two hundred centimeters, the shape of the crown is cylindrical, the needles grow close to each other.
- Fastigiata - the size of the tree reaches fifteen meters, the shape is cylindrical. Shoots grow close to each other. The needles are green with a blue tint.
- Glauka is a large crop with bluish needles.
- Globoza Viridis is a low-growing tree, its size is up to fifty centimeters. The crown is rounded, the needles are poisonous - green in color.
- Repanda is a variety with powerful branches. The size of the needles is up to eighty millimeters, the color is green with a silvery sheen.
- Yaponika - the tree grows slowly, looks like a spruce, the branches grow obliquely, the needles are small green.
- Camon Blue is a small shrub. Branches are strong, needles, bent, bright bluish color.
Also, experts in plant cultivation plant crops such as: hook, Koch, Murray, Pallas, funerary, Pine, Banksa, Geldreich, Siberian, Italian, hill, China, Crimean, twisted, resinous, Virginia, Pinia, cedar, Rumeli, Lapland , flattened, mountainous, yellowish, with a silvery tint, bright green, emerald, with a grayish tint, Frieza, blue, with a blue tint, with red cones.