Cherry is, perhaps, one of the most common fruit and berry crops, which today is found in almost every garden or on every personal plot. Today there is a huge number of the most diverse varieties that differ from each other in a number of ways. This can be the ripening time, and the size of the cherries themselves, as well as the region in which it is most comfortable for a cherry tree to grow and give a bountiful harvest. As a rule, the most resistant varieties are those that grow mainly in the northern regions of our country. For example, this Ob, Ashinskaya cherry... But still, it is logical to say that the sweetest, largest and most attractive fruits are obtained, of course, from those trees that grow in the south. In this article, we will dwell in more detail on the various characteristics of the varieties of cherry trees that are especially loved and popular among Russian gardeners and agronomists. To choose a cherry variety that is suitable for a gardener in all respects, you need to know all the main characteristics of plants, because it will be much easier to navigate in all the variety of cherries this way.
The first category of varieties that will be considered by us is self-fertile varieties. This means that these cherry varieties do not require additional pollination in order to bear fruit. Bisexual flowers are formed on the trees and, accordingly, there is no point in planting other trees around with similar characteristics and approximate ripening times. This, of course, is the special advantage of self-fertile varieties.
One of the most famous self-fertile varieties is Apukhtinskaya cherry... It is a tree of medium size and height. Very large and attractive cherries ripen on them, which, moreover, have a fairly high indicator of presentation. The variety begins to produce crops already in the second year after the bush was planted in open ground. At the same time, you should pay attention to the fact that this is a late-ripening variety, and the harvest ripens only around mid-August or closer to the end of this month. The tree is quite stable when it comes to excessive drought or excessive frost. At the same time, there is still a high probability that the cherry tree will become infected with very common fungal diseases, therefore, it is necessary to additionally process the plant in order to protect it from this and increase the likelihood of survival and, accordingly, yield.
The second variety from the self-fertile group is a variety called Memory of Yenikeev... The tree is quite small, its height usually does not exceed three meters, and the crown is not too thickened, although the harvest on it is very abundant. The berries are oval in shape and dark red in color, the pulp is distinguished by its juiciness and bright taste characteristics, which are very highly appreciated by gardeners. The variety differs in that a rather large bone is located inside the cherries, while it separates perfectly from the pulp, especially from the pulp of those berries that have already matured as much as possible. Fruiting of a tree can occur in the third year after the bush has been planted in open ground, and the fruits ripen completely, and they can be harvested around the very end of June. From one tree, under favorable conditions and provided that the tree is completely healthy, approximately 15 kilograms of fruit can be harvested.At the same time, the variety has an average level of winter hardiness and drought resistance, so at this time it is recommended to additionally support the plant so as not to trigger a disease or fungal infection.
The next group of cherry varieties that we will look at are early varieties. Their advantage is that the trees bear fruit early enough, they can be harvested from early June to mid-July. It is for this reason that they are called early. In comparison with some other varieties, this group really begins to bear fruit quite early, and at the same time, the trees remain generally quite unpretentious, which also makes them quite predominant. The fruits from the trees are very sweet, and the varieties themselves are distinguished by resistance to temperature extremes, as well as resistance to certain natural phenomena, which may not be favorable for every variety. First grade - Chocolate girl, which is a tree of medium height, the crown most of all resembles an inverted cone in shape. The fruits are not too sweet, but rather more sour when compared to other varieties. At the same time, the cherry variety perfectly tolerates both severe frosts and severe drought, while not being capricious at all and not showing any particular whimsy in grooming measures. This is a self-fertile variety, it can bring a stable high yield, the main thing is to look after it and give it worthy care and attention.
Spunk Is a cherry variety that is more a hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry. The tree is tall, the branches grow in a free, chaotic manner, while the crown itself is more like a ball in shape. The berries are sweet and sour, the weight of one fruit can reach four grams. At the same time, the first harvest can be harvested only in the sixth year of the life of the plant itself, but if the tree survives to the age of twenty years, then it will give an incredibly high yield level - up to sixty kilograms from one tree. The variety begins to bear fruit around the end of June, sometimes this period can shift to the beginning of July. At the same time, one of the advantages of the variety is that it is sufficiently resistant to frost and arid temperatures, but at the same time it is not a self-fertile variety, so it needs additional pollinators to grow around, thanks to which the tree can produce its harvest.
Youth cherry Is a bush cherry variety, which has a very low crown, making it easy to harvest the resulting crop. The fruits are large in size, the mass of one can reach up to five grams, while the fruits themselves, in principle, do not have a too sweet taste, they rather have a bright sourness, which is why the universal properties of the variety are lost. Cherries are recommended to be used in order to prepare canning, as well as to freeze fruits. The first harvest appears on a tree when it reaches five years of age, mainly fruits are tied on last year's wood. The cherry variety is resistant to temperature extremes or frost, and is generally quite resistant to common fungal diseases. One way or another, it is necessary to additionally monitor the plant, its general condition, in order to prevent the growth of fungi and bacteria.
Miracle cherry - This is a tree variety of cherry, which does not have the highest vigor, so the tree is more likely to belong to the medium-growing category. It is also worth saying a few words about the crown - it must be formed regularly, since the fruits are usually tied at the very top, and if you give the plant the opportunity to grow freely, then the fruits will simply be impossible to collect. The berries themselves taste very sweet, dessert, they are more like cherries, but nevertheless they have never been its hybrid. The fruits are large, the mass of one cherry can reach ten grams.The variety is self-fertile, so it is worth planting trees with similar characteristics and ripening time around, so that pollination and, accordingly, fruiting occurs. After reaching three years, the plant begins to give the very first fruits, then the harvest stabilizes, becomes more regular and stable, which, of course, is a huge advantage of this variety. Harvesting is usually scheduled for the very beginning of June, so the variety is super early. Cherries are distinguished by a high level of resistance to many common diseases, as well as the fact that, in general, they perfectly tolerate too strong and prolonged frosts, which, undoubtedly, is a huge advantage of this cherry variety.
Baby - a medium-tall tree with a spherical crown. The fruits are very beautiful, marketable. They have a deep red color, and the taste is quite sweet and pleasant. The berries are round, the weight of one reaches six grams. The variety is excellent for keeping the berries for a long time, as well as for transporting crops over long distances. Baby also has a high level of immunity to various diseases; this cherry variety is resistant to frost. But still, there are drawbacks - it cannot be said that the Baby gives a bountiful harvest, because from one tree, under favorable conditions, no more than seventeen kilograms of cherries can be harvested. Full ripening of the fruits occurs around July, then they can be collected almost all at once, because the fruits ripen together and at the same time.
Medium ripening varieties
The next group of varieties is a medium-ripening cherry variety. Basically, these are mid-early varieties, fruits from trees can be harvested in the middle of summer, that is, in July. A distinctive feature of this group is that the fruits have the best taste when compared with other varieties. They are juicy and sweet, excellent large sizes, store well and tolerate transportability. Gardeners prefer to eat cherries from this group directly fresh, as they have a sweet refreshing taste, and this is certainly a huge advantage of mid-early varieties.
Vladimirskaya cherry - this is one of the most famous and oldest varieties, which has rightfully become legendary and is very common in our country. Basically, this cherry variety is grown in central Russia, but at the same time it is excellent for distribution in more northern regions, although it is best there to give the plant additional support so that it gives an excellent and tasty harvest in return. The fruits are sweet and sour, the fibers are clearly visible and felt in them, the purpose of cherries is universal. The first time the cherry begins to bear fruit is when the tree reaches the age of three years. Cherries ripen by about the end of July, the harvest can be harvested at the same time, while if you hold the cherry a little on the tree, it will not crumble, which of course is a plus of this variety. It is also worth focusing on the fact that the variety tolerates frosts well, but if suddenly the variety is not protected or strengthened against spring frosts, especially returnable ones, then the inflorescences can be irretrievably destroyed, and then there will be no harvest this year. In the northern regions, cherry yields may drop by an average of six kilograms, due to less stable natural conditions and the fact that the soil there warms up much more slowly than it should. The cultivar is self-fertile and needs additional trees and pollinators in order to produce full fruit.
Zhukovskaya - this cherry variety gives a tree no more than 2.5 meters in height. The crown is very spreading, while it is not at all thick. Fruiting can be carried out on last year's annual wood, berries can be arranged in a single order.Sometimes you can find two berries together, but this is rather a rarity and an exception. The variety is not distinguished by the largest berries, the weight of one reaches no more than four grams, while they have a heart shape, and the berries themselves have a dark burgundy color. The pulp is very tender and juicy, the taste of the berries is dessert, and the purpose is rather universal, since they like to eat fresh berries and prepare various desserts, drinks, freezes or preparations from them. The variety is not too resistant to common diseases, so it is usually recommended to closely monitor the general condition of the tree, constantly inspect it for possible fungal neoplasms, as well as for spreading pests that also do not mind eating the plant and its ovaries.
Kharitonovskaya cherry - a medium-sized tree, which gives round fruits of the correct shape. The stone is easily separated from the pulp if the fruits are ripe enough, and the ripe fruits themselves have a sweet taste with pronounced sourness. It should be noted that the variety has a high level of immunity and stress resistance, which, of course, is its huge advantage, since many varieties from the mid-early group do not particularly withstand common diseases and viruses, but Kharitonovskaya was very lucky in this regard. At the same time, it is worth emphasizing that the variety needs additional pollination, since it is a self-fertile variety, and without pollination the tree simply will not give absolutely any fruit.
Turgenevka - the tree is up to three meters high, the berries are wide, rather large, the weight of one cherry usually reaches seven grams. At the same time, the gardener receives the first crop about five years after he planted the bush in open ground. The fruits ripen completely at the beginning of July, it is worth harvesting immediately, since the fruits tend to shatter if they are not harvested on time. The variety, like Kharitonovka, perfectly tolerates severe drought or severe frosts (including returnable spring frosts), but it should be remembered that during spring frosts it is better to additionally cover the plant, especially its lower part. Diseases are practically not scary to this variety, it is self-fertile, so it is recommended to plant additional trees next to the plant, which will become pollinators for Turgenevka. The variety gives a stable yield, high class. The fruits are perfectly stored, and they can also be transported over long distances. At the same time, they are also very useful, since the fruits contain a large amount of vitamins and antioxidants, which are so necessary for the human body of any age.
Another variety called Morozovka... From one hundred square meters, you can collect up to five hundred kilograms of this crop, but provided that the plant reaches three years, and the gardener carefully monitors its general condition. The variety is quite resistant to severe frosts or diseases, and can withstand extremely dry periods. At the same time, just like many other cherry varieties, it is self-fertile, so it needs to plant additional pollinators nearby so that the tree gives an excellent harvest. Also, cherry varieties such as Radonezh, Meeting, Toy, Night... Gardeners speak of them extremely positively, claiming that these varieties have the most attractive taste characteristics, and that is why they are so popular. At the same time, these varieties do not require special attention to themselves, which is also a huge plus.
There are also some very famous late cherry varieties. They ripen around the end of summer, or they can be harvested at the very beginning of autumn.Varieties can be very sweet, but there are also those that produce fruits with a pronounced sourness, which, however, does not make them less attractive and in demand among modern gardeners and gardeners.
Lyubskaya cherry - this variety of late cherry cherries is intended to be grown in the middle or southern regions of our country. At the same time, the variety differs in that it puts forward rather stringent requirements when it comes to the composition and fertility of the soil, as well as care measures. The harvest is very abundant and large, the taste of the berries is rather mediocre, the most common, but the fruits are very well stored and can be transported over long distances without losing their presentation. Ideally, berries are best not eaten fresh, but used for processing, making jams and jams, sauces and drinks. The cherry variety is not at all resistant to unfavorable natural conditions, therefore it can often get sick, which is why it needs additional protection from diseases and pests, and in this regard it is quite capricious.
Generous cherry - a bushy cherry variety, the weight of one fruit usually reaches no more than four grams, while the yield is very stable and, most importantly, abundant. Full ripening of the fruits occurs in the autumn. The very first crop can be harvested in the third year after the bush has been planted in open ground, while the variety tolerates frost well, can perfectly withstand attacks from pests and various fungal diseases. At the same time, if you do not create favorable conditions for the plant, this can lead to the fact that the cherry will get sick with a fungal infection, which is not so easy to get rid of. So it is worth paying attention to preventive measures, since only in this case it is possible to protect the plant and increase its yield indicators.
Robin - a medium-sized tree with a regular spherical crown, on which small fruits are located. At the same time, their taste is quite pleasant, and the flesh is dense, so the fruits can be stored for a sufficiently long time, not wither or rot. The annual harvest is abundant; ripe berries can be harvested at the very beginning of August. At the same time, the cherry variety is not self-fertile, so it is worth planting additional pollinators around in order to get a really bountiful and tasty harvest. Resistance to diseases is also not at the highest level, but if we talk about frosts, then, in principle, here the plant can tolerate them quite calmly. In the spring, it is better to additionally cover the lower part of the plant in order to prevent freezing due to recurrent frosts. There are also several other varieties of cherries that bear fruit and harvest late enough - this Zhuravka and Vole, Ruby cherry, Lotova and Gorkovskaya... All of them have approximately the same indicators, especially when it comes to the ripening period of the fruits, as well as to the extent to which the cherry harvest is obtained.
Varieties by fruit size
Cherry varieties can also be grouped by fruit size. For example, there are varieties that give very large dessert berries, which, in terms of taste, will more resemble not cherry, but rather cherry crops. But at the same time, these varieties are distinguished by their whimsicality if we are talking about climatic conditions, temperature conditions and what kind of care measures are needed for these varieties of cherries. These include Consumer goods Black, Volochaevka, Meeting, Youth, Dessert Morozova and many others. These are rather tall plants, on which large dessert berries are located, the weight of which can reach eleven grams.The varieties are quite whimsical, they should be fed, constantly moistened the soil, and also harvested on time, since there is a high probability that the fruits can crumble if not harvested, and they will fully ripen. The fruits perfectly tolerate long-distance transportation, and in general can withstand long-term storage. They do not lose their taste characteristics at all, they remain just as tasty and healthy. The fruits, like many other varieties, have a universal purpose.
Low-growing cherry varieties are characterized by low growth of the bushes themselves, which usually do not even reach two meters. Moreover, these varieties are very convenient when it comes to breeding them, and due to their low growth, it is convenient to harvest even from the very top of the tree. It is for this reason that they are very popular among gardeners. Also, their advantage lies in the fact that, despite their low growth, these varieties perfectly tolerate not the most favorable climatic conditions, and give a stable and plentiful harvest, which has excellent taste characteristics. Among them, the cherry variety should be distinguished. Anthracite cherry, Bystrinka, Mtsenskaya, Vladimirskaya, Shokoladnitsa and many other cherry varieties. They have similar characteristics, as well as similar requirements, if we are talking directly about the requirements for planting and subsequent care of plants.
There are also several varieties of cherries that are considered the best to grow directly in the southern regions of Russia. These varieties are distinguished by the fact that the berries have an excellent taste, unique aroma and useful properties. At the same time, they have either low or medium frost resistance, and it is for this reason that it is best to plant these trees directly in the South, so that they receive sufficient lighting and sufficient heat there. It is also worth emphasizing that you should not grow these varieties in the middle lane or in the north, since the trees will not take root there, and there will be no harvest as a result, this is excluded. These varieties include a cherry variety called Sasha, Garland, Lyubskaya, Shpanka... The trees do not need additional pollinators as they are self-fertile. Either way, some varieties can be planted alongside other varieties of cherries, this can enhance the yield and flavor characteristics of the fruit, especially if the cherry variety has similar characteristics in terms of ripening and leaving time.
Ideally suitable for the northern regions is a cherry variety such as Ashinskaya, Ob, Altai swallow... These varieties have excellent growth rates, as well as a high level of immunity and stress resistance. It is for this reason that they can take root in the north and give a fairly bountiful harvest. The fruits are more acidic, as they lack sun and warmth, but they are great for recycling, making jams and jams, as well as drinks or for freezing fruits, preserving for the winter. Thus, there is a huge variety of different varieties of cherries, each of which has its own unique characteristics. Today, in the conditions that in Russia the regions are located in different climatic conditions, it is possible to find varieties that will take root and bear fruit even in the north, where the climate is not favorable. Also, a lot depends on the care measures that the gardener himself is ready to provide, because how the plant will take root, adapt, how much it will be protected from external adverse influences and climatic instabilities depends on his attention and care.