Blackcurrant Charm expresses its versatility in the ability to grow it both on a summer cottage and on an industrial plantation. The variety is undemanding, with an excellent, stable yield, which makes this variety very popular.
Interestingly, there are almost 150 wild-growing varieties of currants around the world. It grows everywhere, with the exception of Antarctica and Australia. Currant - with large berries and dense skin, which allows harvesting using special mechanisms. Currant has a universal purpose, it is used fresh, frozen, dry and processed (jam, compote, jam, etc.). On an industrial scale, currants are also used to make juices, for confectionery, ice cream, and I make natural dyes for food from currants. The healing properties of currant leaves are also widely used for the needs of traditional medicine: the leaves help fight colds.
For many decades, the attention of breeders around the world has been riveted to black currants. In our country, efforts are directed towards varieties that are resistant to high and low temperatures, with strong immunity to many diseases. Of course, breeders, professional gardeners and ordinary gardeners are interested in currants with high-quality fruits and high yields.
These varieties include Ocharovanie currant, bred by scientists from the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Culture Breeding T.P. Ogoltsova and S.D. Knyazev. Black currant variety Ocharovanie obtained through crossing "Exotics" and "Sunderbyun-2". The variety passed the test, and as a result - an entry in the State Register in 2007.
Black currant Charm: variety description and characteristics
Black currant Charm: photo of the variety
The variety of black currant Charm is high, reaching two meters, branching shrubs. Shoots are dark brown lignified and young green.
The leaves are five-lobed, rich green, with denticles along the edges, the leaf plate is slightly corrugated, with a slight matte shade.
The buds on the bushes open on May 5-12. During this period, the "Charm" bush cannot be called particularly decorative, because the flowers are quite faded.
The berry of the currant variety Charm is large, round in shape with an average weight of 2.2 g (maximum reaches 3.5 g). Berry with juicy pulp, with a black, dense, shiny skin. The berry tastes sweet and sour, dessert, has a tasting rating of 4.8 points.
It is interesting that the second name for black currant is "monastery berry". Ancient chronicles of the 11th century indicate the cultivation of black currants in monasteries, including for medicinal purposes. From about the 16th century, black currants began to be grown on household plots.
Currants are rightly called the most healthy berry. This statement is directly related to the chemical composition of this culture. In terms of chemical composition, black currant is a whole storehouse of vitamins; micro and macro elements; essential oils with bactericidal properties; phytoncides that kill viruses; pectins and tannins that improve the digestive tract; organic acids that have antimicrobial effect.
Black currant berries are rightfully called an excellent natural medicine that can effectively improve immunity.
Currant berries Charm ripen in two months from the beginning of flowering, the approximate time is July 7-15. They ripen well without shedding before harvesting. The yield indicators are high - 120 centners of berries / 1 ha.
Blackcurrant Charm: planting varieties
Agrotechnical techniques for growing black currant varieties Charm are not much different from other varieties. Here is a standard set: watering, feeding, proper planting, loosening, preparation for the winter cold. An important stage is the choice of a good site for planting seedlings, so that the currant bushes are comfortable, and the place of growth has a positive effect on the health and development of the plant.
- When is it better to plant and how to choose seedlings
Currant bushes are planted in spring and autumn. Spring is the least favorable time because you need to choose the right timing. On the one hand, the land must be warmed up, on the other, planting must take place before the growing season begins. The approximate spring planting date is from the 20th of March to the beginning of April.
The autumn period is more favorable for planting. Planting begins in the first days of October. In this case, before the first negative temperatures, the bushes will have time to get used to the new place, strengthen, the soil is saturated with fertilizers laid down during planting. By spring, the currant bushes will be full of strength and start growing.
The purchase of seedlings should be made in a special nursery, from a trusted seller, so that there is no confusion with the variety.
If black currant Charm is already on your site, then you can start breeding culture.
Seedlings should be chosen with a developed root system, and the aerial part should have several strong, undamaged branches.
- About choosing a place and landing
Currant Charm prefers a sunny place, which guarantees the owner high yields and normal development of the crop with a small likelihood of diseases. It is good if the bushes are not in an open place, but, for example, near a fence, which will serve as an excellent protection of currants from winds and drafts. In this case, your currants are not threatened with fragility of shoots and shedding of berries during fruiting.
For currants of the Ocharovanie variety, moist soil is suitable. It will help the bushes to endure the dry time at least for a while. But you still can't do without regular watering, since a lack of moisture will negatively affect the size and taste of the berries.
At the same time, the situation with high humidity is not suitable for the black currant variety Charm, since the root system may suffer due to swampiness and high flow of groundwater. In addition, excess moisture can provoke various infections. The best option is to place the seedlings when planting in elevated areas, water well and regularly.
After choosing a site, they are engaged in a planting pit:
- dig a hole (diameter - 0.4-0.5 m, depth - 0.4-0.5 m);
- when planting several seedlings, maintain a distance between them of approximately 1.5 meters;
- at the bottom of the hole, a drainage layer 0.1 m thick from crushed stone is laid;
- then there is a layer of a mixture of fertilizers: compost (5 kg), superphosphate (80 g), wood ash (30 g) and a bucket of soil;
- placing the plant in the center of the hole, first water * 5-6 l / 1 bush), then cover it with soil and water it again;
- after the soil has subsided, a little sand is poured, which subsequently will perfectly pass water and partly serve as a mulching material.
Blackcurrant Charm: Care
Fifteen days from the moment of planting, the plant is watered regularly two to three times a week. Each bush requires 5 to 7 liters of moisture. When planting, the soil is usually enriched with fertilizers, so the next top dressing is carried out only for 2-3 years.
Let's talk about the further care of black currant bushes "Charm".
— Watering will depend on the weather. In a rainy spring, watering is often not necessary (on the contrary, with a large accumulation of water, it is better to dig a drainage groove to drain excess moisture). In the case of infrequent precipitation, currants are watered once or twice every 7 days (for an adult bush, up to 10 liters of water will be required). In a dry summer, watering can and should be carried out more often, so that the soil is moistened to a depth of about 0.4 m.In the autumn period, you cannot do without mandatory water-charging irrigation (30 liters of water / 1 bush), for the best wintering of the plant.
- Along with moistening the soil, loosen and remove weeds. The purpose of these actions is to combat the crust that can form on the surface of the soil and impede the flow of oxygen.
- WITH using mulching it is possible to achieve soil moisture. The mulching layer is sand, peat, which retain moisture in the soil and prevent evaporation. It is important not to forget about the periodic change of mulch in order to prevent the engraftment of harmful microorganisms.
- The main top dressing must be applied in spring and autumn. In the spring apply nitrogen-containing fertilizer, which will help good growth and development of shoots. They are also often fed with urea (50 g / 10 l of water will be enough for one bush). Also, in the spring, before the appearance of buds and flowers, mineral feeding on the leaves is necessary. In the autumn, organic fertilizers are needed, for example, manure (up to 4 kg / 1 bush).
Blackcurrant Charm: Diseases and Pests
The main advantage of the blackcurrant variety Charm over other blackcurrant varieties is its strong immunity to many common diseases, such as powdery mildew, rust and mottling.
However, the bushes of the currant variety Charm can get sick with tuberculariosis or scab, etc. The fight against these diseases can be carried out with the help of fungicides - "Nitrofen", "Akreks", spraying the bushes several times at intervals of two to three weeks. Preventive measures are to treat with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
It should be remembered that pests may become addicted to the drug, and thus the effect of treatments may decrease. To avoid addiction, pest control drugs are alternated.
Let's talk about the main pests that attack the "Charm" currant.
From aphids yellow-orange swellings appear on the leaves and subsequently on the branches. And it is no coincidence: in this way the pest sucks out the sap of the plant.
The emergence ants often occurs at the same time as aphids, as they feed on their mucus. The ants are easily spotted. Look carefully around - is there an anthill nearby? If you manage to find it, use a shovel to transfer it to the opposite part of the garden area.
From the flames an attack by caterpillars should be expected. From the eggs of these pests, in flowers, caterpillars appear quite quickly. It is they who devour the currants. One tiny insect can devour up to 15 fruits.
Kidney and spider mites - the most dangerous vector of disease. Their appearance is preceded by small light spots (spider mites) or destroyed kidneys (kidney mites). Effective control of these pests is obtained with the help of insecticides "Fufanona", "Inta-Vira", "Aktellika". For prophylaxis, the shrubs are treated with Karbofos or with the help of Fundazol. In the spring, a preventive measure works in the form of spraying the bushes with hot water (80 degrees). It should be remembered that the moth appears in early spring from the soil. To avoid this, roofing plates are laid under the bushes.
How to prune and shape a bush
Currants of the Ocharovanie variety are pruned mainly in the early spring and autumn periods to prepare the crop for winter frosts.There are also unplanned pruning to remove damaged and diseased branches.
Since the black currant variety Charm is not distinguished by strong growth, shrubs are not often thinned out. In the spring, they usually examine the plant, get rid of broken shoots, shorten (up to 0.4 m) branches of the 2nd order. In the fall, in addition to cutting off the damaged fragments, they get rid of old stems (they have a black bark). Also, young root branches are removed, which do not branch.
How to prepare bushes for winter
Preparation for wintering begins in October. First, control pruning, weeding of the planting site, cleaning and burning of garbage are carried out. Then the soil is well watered, loosened, fertilized and covered with a fresh mulch layer (removing the remnants of the summer layer). Further, it is important not to forget about preventive treatment in order to rid the culture of the attack of fungal diseases and pests.
Black currant Charm is a winter-hardy plant, since severe enough frosts (up to minus 30) are not terrible for its root system. For the ground part of the plant, the presence of a thick snow cover is important. Since snowfalls have to be expected from these winters, the bushes should be covered with burlap, spunbond or pine paws, gently bending over the branches.
Black currant "Charm": reproduction
Gardeners who have the "Ocharovanie" variety on their garden plots, as a rule, are satisfied with it (growth, yield, taste of berries), and often propagate the plant on their own. Thus, a whole currant plantation is often obtained from new seedlings.
It is not recommended to propagate this crop with the help of seeds, because the grown plants will not have maternal properties. The most common way of dividing currants is by cuttings, shoots, or by dividing an overgrown bush. The specimens used for division must be healthy, without any damage.
- Lignified cuttings
In early October, they take shoots of a two- or three-year-old, remove the leaves and cut the cuttings, the length of which should be up to 12 cm (on each cutting there are 5-6 healthy buds). It should be remembered that cuttings should not be made from the tops, since it is here that aphids often form and fungal spores develop, which are not noticeable with a simple glance.
The cuttings are planted in a special ridge, fertilized and moistened. Deepening the cuttings into the soil is carried out at an angle, up to 2 buds. The distance between the cuttings is up to 15 cm, the rows are at a distance of 0.5 meters from each other.
The bed with cuttings is covered until spring with spunbond or ordinary dark polyethylene. In the spring, the cuttings will already have a root system, and in the fall, real bushes will appear, which are planted in permanent places.
- Green cuttings
Cutting of green cuttings is carried out in May from a two-year shoot, just at this time the old branches are covered with new shoots. The shoot must be cut so that the lower part of each cuttings captures the old wood by a couple of centimeters.
Ready cuttings are planted on a special ridge at a distance of 10 to 20 centimeters. Each stalk is deepened to the level of the woody part. Further, watering and mulching are carried out.
Plants will have good roots by the fall. By this time, the height of the bush will reach 0.3-, 4 m.
With the help of layering, currants are propagated in early spring. For this purpose, lateral shoots are determined on the bush - one- or two-year-olds located closest to the surface of the earth. Next to the cut-off shoot, a groove is made to a depth of 0.1 m. Having tilted the shoot to the groove, sprinkle it with soil, and water it.
The top is left above the soil, propped up slightly for an upright position.
Rooting of the cuttings will occur in the fall, then each of them is separated from the bush and transplanted to a permanent site.Some gardeners recommend not taking risks and replanting young cuttings in the spring.
- Dividing the bush
Currant bushes Charm is divided in mid-autumn or early spring (before the buds bloom). First, do a neat digging along the diameter of the root circle. Next comes uprooting. Shortly before these procedures, a planting pit for a new bush is prepared and fertilized.
The roots of the dug bush are divided into several parts. Each part should have young branches and well-developed roots. All delenki are immediately planted in their places, without tightening, so as not to bring the plant to wilting and drying.
Collection and transportation
Harvest varieties of black currant Charm from 1 to 15 July. Currants of this variety ripen at the same time, and this is considered an advantage, since there is no need to harvest in several passes. This variety does not crumble, except when the bushes are planted in a windy place.
Currants are best harvested in dry weather, in the morning or evening. It is best to put the berries in low containers, in rows. The number of rows should be small so that the berries do not overwhelm each other.
The berry storage room should be cool, then the harvest is stored for up to three weeks. If the harvest took place in rainy weather, then the currants are slightly dried before storage. For storage in the winter, the berries are frozen, dried, processed with sugar (preserves, jams, compotes, etc.).
Unripe currants are better suited for transportation. It will gradually ripen on the way.
Charm chooses black currant for his backyard - both an experienced gardener and a beginner. Due to its large fruit size, high yield, excellent taste and health benefits for adults and children, this choice becomes a win-win.
Blackcurrant Charm: reviews of gardeners
Katerina Maksimovna, Chelyabinsk region: “The variety of black currant Charm began to grow right after I saw very large berries at my neighbor's dacha - it turned out that this currant Charm gives such large and at the same time tasty fruits. Also, as it soon turned out, the currant variety Ocharovanie possesses excellent frost resistance, which is good news. "
Tamara Viktorovna, Sverdlovsk region: “Currant My charm has been growing for a long time. During this time, she never got sick with either spotting or rust. While other currant varieties growing nearby have been ill more than once. "
Anastasia Mikhailovna, Moscow region: “The currant variety Charm is ideal for me in all respects, except for one. As the bush grows, the branches drop very strongly under the weight of the berries, so additional support is needed. Despite this, I recommend the black currant variety "Charm" for cultivation. "