Black currant Galinka: description, cultivation
The article presents Galinka currants: a description of the variety, planting, a guide to growing.
Galinka currant: variety description and characteristics
Black currant Galinka: photo of the variety
This article will focus on black currants, which are so famous for their healthy berries. Currant fruits contain a large amount of vitamin C, so this berry bush seeks to grow almost every gardener. In the modern world, there are a large number of plant varieties, and the work of breeders does not stand still. More details will be described here about the Galinka bush variety.
Galinka currant: photo of the variety
The black currant variety Galinka was bred in 1980 at the Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after M.A. Lisavenko. The plant was obtained by crossing two varieties of currants: this is a seedling of Golubki and Lepaan Musta.
Galinka currant turned out to be quite resistant to frost, therefore it was recommended to grow it even in the West Siberian and East Siberian territories. In addition to private plantings, the plant can be grown on an industrial scale.
Galinka currant shrub has medium growth and medium thickening. Shoot regeneration is rather weak here. When the bush is young, the bark of its stems has a light green tint. However, over time, they become lignified and brown in color. The shoots themselves have a curved shape and a small diameter. The buds here are large enough, their shade is brown. They are usually located singly.
Galinka currant leaves have a light green tint and are slightly concave inward. The blades at the tops have a characteristic sharpening, and the entire edge of the leaf plate is serrated. The middle blade is larger than the side blades. A bright pattern of veins is visible on the sheet.
The flowering period is late spring. Here the bush is covered with small flowers that are formed in brushes and have a pink tint.
Next, berries appear, which are characterized by a large size and a black, bright, shiny skin. The fruit is round in shape and contains a small amount of seeds inside. Ripening of the fruits of this variety of currants occurs simultaneously.
The shrub tolerates winter well, as well as hot dry summers. It can withstand common fungal diseases and insect pests. Occasionally it is affected by septoria, as well as anthracnose and kidney mites.
Black currant Galinka: features of the variety
Galinka currant: photo of the variety
Galinka currant has some features that gardeners need to know about.
As described above, the plant is highly resistant to frost and drought. In general, the shrub is considered unpretentious, therefore it is popular in Siberia. But at the same time, it should be borne in mind that in order to get a high yield, the bush should be watered abundantly.
The fruits of Galinka currants ripen very early, while the yield is estimated as high. The very next year, after the seedling is planted, it will be possible to collect the first fruits. Moreover, if the necessary care is taken for the plant, then the amount of the crop can reach more than 3 kg per bush. Speaking of industrial plantings, 13 tons can be harvested from one hectare of currant plantings. Ripe fruits here are round, have a black skin and are quite large in size, about two or four grams.
Galinka currant berries are characterized by a pleasant aroma and a sweet taste with a slight sourness. Experts estimate the taste of fresh berries at 4 points, but the workpieces made from currant berries of this variety are rated higher. Juice, compote, and jam are very tasty from them. The berries contain a large amount of nutrients, including dry substances, pectin, sugars and vitamin C.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any plant, this variety has both advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include a high yield, high external and taste qualities of fruits, self-fertility of the plant, the ability to long-distance transportation, a quick onset of fruiting, unpretentiousness of the shrub, as well as high immunity to powdery mildew. In addition, you can eat berries, both fresh and used for preservation.
The list of disadvantages is quite short - the plant has low immunity to septoria.
Rules for planting currants Galinka
Before you grow Galinka black currant on your site, you need to familiarize yourself with the basic planting rules. If you have a seedling with closed roots, then you can plant it at any time during the entire vegetative period. If the roots are open, then it is best to plant the plant in the off-season.
In autumn, the optimal time will be September or October. In spring, the bush is planted after the soil has thawed, but the buds have not yet swollen. For better development and fruiting of the culture, it is necessary to water the bushes abundantly. It is also better to plant the shrub in an open, lighted area. In addition, you should choose a place where excess water from snow and rain does not drain. The sun's rays should fall on the site for at least 12 hours a day. Loose, fertile, slightly acidic soil is best suited.
The optimal landing site will be lighted, but protected from drafts. If the region is characterized by a hot dry summer, then it is permissible to plant a shrub in a small shade. You should also choose an area where groundwater flows as deep as possible. Do not choose low-lying areas for planting currants. Not the best place will be where other fruit bushes grew before. In addition, these crops will be bad neighbors, since this is fraught with the rapid reproduction of pests.
Preparation of planting material
Galinka black currant seedling is best bought in special proven nurseries. Here you can be sure of the type of plant you buy. If the roots are dry, it is better to soak the plant in a solution that stimulates root growth before planting. Kornevin or Heteroauxin works well. Plants can be soaked in water.
It is best to buy seedlings that are already one or two years old. Moreover, they should have a fairly long root system and about five stems. If the seedling is healthy, then it will have sufficiently strong, flexible shoots, their color will be even, and the bark is smooth. The wood under the bark will have a green tint. The root system should always be moist here.
First you need to prepare a landing site. Dig up the site, remove all debris, weeds, stones, and also apply fertilizers, which are good, for example, compost. You can also use humus.
The size of the landing pit should be about half a meter in all directions. If you are planting several seedlings, then you should maintain a distance between them of about one meter or two meters. If currants grow too often, it will be easier for diseases and insect pests to spread. Then it is necessary to mix the topsoil with organic fertilizers, also add a few grams of superphosphate, ash. The planting hole is filled in half and left for a certain period of time for the earth to settle.
After that, the seedlings should be placed on a mound, the root shoots should be spread, covered with the rest of the soil and the soil around the trunk should be compacted. It should be controlled that the root collar is buried by about 5 cm. Due to this, lateral shoots will grow, and the roots of the bush will be more developed. A trunk circle is formed around each bush, where it is necessary to add about half a bucket of water. It is better to mulch the top of the soil surface. Next, you should immediately cut off the shoots about 3 buds from the base.
In order for Galinka currants to grow well and bear fruit, you must follow the rules of care.
Black currant Galinka should be watered regularly. Since the root system here is small - no more than half a meter, the plant cannot feed on groundwater, therefore, currants need to be watered about 5 times during the entire season. Particular attention should be paid to watering when the flowers are tied, and then the fruits. Water the currants abundantly after picking the berries. If the summer is dry and there is very little rain, you need to water it about once every 10 days, based on about 4 buckets of water per bush. If there is a lot of rain, then you do not need to water the currants.
In order to water efficiently, it is necessary to make a ditch around the plant so that the water does not spread. Before the winter period, abundant watering should be done so that the culture does not freeze during the cold period. After watering, you should loosen the ground around the shrub.
In addition, in spring it is also best to lay out a thick layer of mulch, which is great for straw, humus or compost.
After the bush is planted, fertilization does not need to be applied for a couple of years, since all the fertilizers were applied during planting. After two years, water the soil around the shrub in the spring and immediately add organic fertilizers. Nitrogen-containing preparations are needed in order for branches and leaves to grow faster. Ammonium nitrate can be used as fertilizer. During flowering, it is necessary to fertilize the currants with manure or dung solution, as well as superphosphate and potassium-containing preparations. In this case, about two or three buckets of top dressing should be spent on the bush. You can use ready-made complex preparations that can be easily purchased in stores.
After the harvest is harvested, the currants should be fed with potassium-containing and phosphorus-containing preparations. A small amount of humus also does not hurt.
Like any shrub, Galinka black currant needs regular crown formation. Therefore, after two years, you should cut out the old branches and then leave only the strongest ones. Old and affected branches, as well as unnecessary ones, are removed. The remaining strong stems should be shortened by about a couple of buds in order to stimulate their growth and the formation of other branches.
Thus, after three years, six large last year's branches should be left on the currants, and in the summer they pinch the tops. As a result, about 5 buds remain on each. After 5 years, all old branches should be cut out. Such pruning will be called anti-aging. The formed shrub will consist of one-year-old stems, two-year-old stems, three-year-old shoots, and four five-year-old shoots. A bush formed in this way will bear fruit very abundantly.
Galinka black currant should be formed before sap flow begins.
If you did not have time to carry out the formation of the bush in the spring, then you should do this in the autumn after the foliage has fallen, but before the onset of the first frost. Do not forget to remove broken, dry and affected branches. After the autumn pruning, the shrub should be treated against various diseases, as well as insect pests.
Preparing for winter
Before the winter period, it is necessary to water the currants abundantly.
Additional cover for the roots of currants before the winter period is not necessary, since this is a fairly frost-resistant culture. It is only necessary to close the base of the branches against rodents. To do this, you can use a mesh or roofing material. Also, a thick layer of mulch will help warm the roots during winter. You can cover the shrub with snow. In addition, the melted snow will be an excellent watering for the awakened bush.
Galinka currants are usually propagated by cuttings, layering and dividing the bush.
The fastest way to propagate currants is cuttings. To do this, it is necessary to select the strongest annual branches in September, cut them off and cut them into small branches, about 10-15 cm each. The leaves are removed from them. Then they prepare a site for planting - they dig it up and apply fertilizers. It is better to pre-place the cuttings in some kind of growth stimulant, for example, Kornevin. Prepared cuttings should be planted at an acute angle. In this case, one bud should remain on the soil surface.
When planting several cuttings, a distance of about 20 cm between them should be observed. The soil surface is well compacted and a thick layer of mulch is laid out. In the spring, it is necessary to loosen the surface, feed the site with humus or compost. Then you can carry out the usual care, as for an adult plant: fertilize and water the cuttings. By the fall, you will have young seedlings, which are then planted in the required place.
For propagation by layering, you should take the healthiest branches that are closest to the ground. To do this, the branch must be pinned to the soil, leaving the top. The optimal time for reproduction by layering is spring. Then the layering is carried out with standard care, and the next year the plants will be ready.
To propagate the currants by dividing the bush, it is necessary in the spring or autumn to choose a healthy, strong overgrown shrub, dig it out, carefully clean the root system from the ground and divide the bush into several parts with a sharp object, each of which will contain roots and shoots. Then the delenki are seated in different places.
Diseases and pests
This variety of currants can occasionally be affected by fungal diseases, which are especially active in rainy, cool summers.
Septoriasis... With this disease, dark brown spots appear on the leaves. Then they brighten and turn white. Only the edge of the spot remains brown. The leaf gradually dries up and falls off. At the same time, the currant loses its yield.
Rust. This disease can affect both leaves and fruits. The signs of the disease are bumps on the back of the leaf.
In order to protect the shrub from these ailments, it is necessary to weed the currants, remove the remnants of leaves and fruits. Also, when the first signs of a disease are detected, it is necessary to treat the bush with phytosporin. In addition, after the snow melts, it is necessary to treat the shrub with Bordeaux liquid or copper-containing preparations.
There are also more dangerous diseases - these are viral. They are not treatable. When a viral disease occurs, the bushes are dug up and burned.
Among them, the striped mosaic is distinguished, the sign of which is the beautiful pattern of yellow color on the leaves. Insects are carriers.
Terry. With this disease, the productivity of the bush is lost. The signs are a change in the shape of the buds, as well as their color becomes darker. In addition, the flowers do not have a pronounced aroma. The flowering period also comes later, and the flowers immediately fall off, without the formation of berries.
Viral diseases are not treatable. But they can be prevented by taking timely preventive measures.
- You should buy only high-quality healthy planting material.
- Only healthy bushes are also chosen for reproduction.
- From time to time, you need to inspect the plants for signs of disease. You also need to treat the bush from insects, because they are the carriers of various ailments. In order to increase the defenses of the plant, it is necessary to feed it.
- When working with shrubs, only clean and disinfected tools should be used.
- When fertilizing plants, it should be borne in mind that potassium-containing and phosphorus-containing preparations increase the defenses of the plant, while an excess of nitrogen can just cause the spread of viruses.
Of the pests, most often the Galinka currant is attacked by gall midge, fire flies, moths and mites, aphids, scale insects and others. Such drugs as Fitoverm, Karbofos, Aktellik have proven themselves very well in pest control.
In addition, do not forget about preventive measures and dig up the ground under the currants before the winter period, apply fertilizers, mulch the ground with cardboard, and also destroy the affected branches or shrubs.
Chemicals cannot be used during the fruiting of a bush, so folk recipes can also be used. For prophylaxis in the spring, it is necessary to pour boiling water over the currants in the spring. Usually the procedure is carried out before the start of sap flow. Some gardeners also add manganese to boiling water. You can use an infusion of wormwood, garlic, or tobacco to repel insects with the smell.
Galinka currants are usually harvested in dry weather, after the dew has evaporated. It is best to pick the berries in bunches. Galinka black currant fruits ripen at the same time, which makes harvesting easier. In addition, the variety is distinguished by a dry separation, therefore, the fruits are suitable for long-term transportation.
Wet berries, as well as those that have been scorned, need to be processed as quickly as possible.
The shelf life of the crop is two weeks at an air temperature of about 10 degrees and an average level of humidity. If you are going to transport currants or store, you need to collect them a little ahead of schedule. In addition, these fruits contain more vitamins.
The berries are stored in small boxes or baskets. You can use cellophane bags. It is necessary to make a thin layer of berries so that the upper berries do not crush the lower ones. If the storage temperature is 0 degrees, then the berries will lie for 33 weeks.
Most often, the fruits of the Galinka currant are consumed fresh. Also, excellent blanks are obtained from them in the form of compote, jam, jam. Very tasty Galinka currant turns into wine, marshmallow, confiture and so on.
The Galinka black currant variety has a large number of advantages, including abundant fruiting, universal use of the crop, and a high content of vitamin C in fruits. Black currant Galinka has high resistance to frost and is quite unpretentious. However, in order to obtain a bountiful harvest, you should follow some planting and care rules, and also do not forget about the prevention of diseases.
Black currant Galinka: video about the variety