Black currant Dashkovskaya: description, cultivation
The article presents the Black Dashkovskaya currant: description, characteristics, guidance on planting, care, cultivation.
Black currant Dashkovskaya: basic information
Black currant Dashkovskaya
Black currant is one of the most common and favorite crops among gardeners that are grown in our country. It is not surprising that over many decades, gardeners have bred a huge number of completely different varieties, and it became quite difficult to find something really worthwhile and suitable for you.
However, we decided to try to solve this problem, and therefore in this article we present to your attention one of the objectively best varieties of this culture, which is in great demand, and also pleases gardeners with its excellent qualities. And this variety is called Black Dashkovskaya currant.
We will try to tell you in as much detail as possible about this plant, as well as tell you about the various techniques and general instructions that will allow you to grow it most effectively.
Black currant Dashkovskaya: variety description
Black currant Dashkovskaya
All varieties of fruit crops are divided into groups according to the ripening period: early, middle and late. Of course, there is an even more ramified division into groups, but we will not go into it. You only need to know that this variety belongs to medium-ripening currants.
By the way, this currant is used absolutely everywhere: from small private dachas to relatively large industries, since its properties are universal and allow you to grow a crop in large quantities without any problems.
As for the external characteristics of the bush, it turns out to be quite lush and voluminous in the Black Dashkovskaya currant. In addition, it is quite durable and sturdy, and therefore has a fairly good wind resistance.
Shoots and shrubs are slightly curved and protrude from the trunk at an acute angle, but they are also very strong and practically do not bend under the weight of the fruit.
The color of the shoots is very different from the shade of the trunk: they are painted in light green, and you can also find small pink blotches on their surface. The buds on the surface of the shoots are rather small and are always located singly. They are painted in a brownish-burgundy color.
The leaves of the Black Dashkovskaya currant are rather large and numerous. They have a five-lobed structure, and are also covered with numerous veins and wrinkles.
However, their surface is not only shiny and smooth, but also almost glossy. The leaf petioles are rather long and flexible, which, however, does not make them less resistant to strong winds.
During the flowering period, small flowers are formed on the plant, which even boast some decorative qualities. They always gather in lush inflorescences, which make the bush very elegant, and they also exude a subtle but rather pleasant aroma.
Currant variety Black Dashkovskaya: the history of selection
Currant grade Black Dashkovskaya
Black currant Dashkovskaya - as you might guess, is a domestic variety, and therefore it is so well suited for our weather and climatic conditions.
It was bred at the South Ural Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops, and the research was led by a team of very professional breeders who set a goal for themselves: to develop a variety suitable for cultivation both in private lands and in large-scale production. Simply put, a variety that would suit everyone, and also, of course, would have amazing physiological qualities.
Bradthorpe and Pigeon Seedling were chosen as maternal varieties, which transferred their best qualities to the hybrid and made it so beloved and used.
First of all, of course, there is a remarkable winter hardiness, which was observed in both parents of the Black Dashkovskaya currant, and therefore this ability only increased in her.
You can also note the rather strong immunity of this variety, thanks to which you can not worry about a large number of diseases at all, well, and all the rest will not pose too much of a threat to you.
It should also be noted the amazing qualities of the berries of this currant, since they are rather large in size, as well as remarkable commercial qualities, which makes the Black Dashkovskaya currant especially popular among traders.
By the way, despite all the amazing qualities listed above, and also despite the enormous popularity of this variety, it is quite young. It was entered into the state register only in 2009, which means that this currant is only ten years old, and for such a small age it has reached a very, very much.
Black currant Dashkovskaya: a detailed description of the plant
As already mentioned, this currant belongs to the group of varieties with medium ripening times. However, when exactly do these dates come? Most often, full ripening of berries and their readiness for picking occurs in the second decade of July. However, all the berries do not ripen at the same time, and therefore you will have to harvest in several passes. In total, fruiting continues for twenty or even thirty days.
The fruits, as you already know, are distinguished by their large size, and they weigh from two to six grams, which is quite an impressive result, given that berries of other varieties rarely weigh more than three grams.
Their surface is much more matte than that of some other currants: there is almost no silvery gloss on it, and therefore the berries in general look much darker and more saturated.
By the way, they also have an amazing scent that will spread throughout your garden. However, the aroma is far from the only thing that these berries can boast of, because they also taste great. If you believe the tasters, and a very large number of them, then the berries of the Black Dashkovskaya variety deserve four and nine-tenths points out of five, which is an incredibly rare assessment among the varieties of this culture.
However, even this is not all, because the fruits of the Black Dashkovskaya currant also contain very useful vitamins and trace elements, and therefore they can greatly help you with the prevention of ARVI diseases, as well as with the relief of their symptoms.
However, you should not believe the tales that currants can cure you with their own hands: these are just myths. However, the fact that it will significantly improve your condition during illness is an indisputable fact.
Also, speaking of fruits, their pulp should be mentioned, since it has an almost perfect, very delicate texture, and the skin that covers it does not interfere with the consumption of raw berries in any way.
By the way, besides the fact that this variety can be grown for any purpose, its berries are also suitable for any type of processing.To begin with, they are great for raw consumption and, therefore, for sale. But, in addition, it should be noted that they retain their qualities when preparing from them, both compotes and jams, and preserves.
Also, the berries of the variety are practically not afraid of freezing, and therefore they can be stored right up to winter, even if they lose a certain amount of useful elements.
As for the fertility of the plant, on average, you can collect from four to five kilograms of berries from it, however, according to professional gardeners, this is far from the limit, because with proper fertilization and good care, you can achieve seven kilograms.
To summarize: the advantages and disadvantages of the variety
You probably might already think that this currant is perfect, but this is not at all the case. Unfortunately, nothing ideal exists, and therefore this variety also has its undeniable drawbacks, which simply cannot be ignored.
First of all, it is a rather weak resistance to powdery mildew. This is one of a couple of diseases that the bush's immunity is unable to cope with.
Berry sizes are also quite disappointing at times. However, how can this be? After all, if you believe the description, they should be large. This is really true: the berries are quite large, but only in the case of ideal climatic conditions for the tree. Those gardeners who plant currants where they do not quite belong are left disappointed with rather small fruits.
However, not only the planting site greatly affects the size of the fruits, but also the weather throughout the year, and therefore, even planting a tree in the ideal place for it, you may not get the desired results simply due to bad weather.
Of the unconfirmed minuses, we can also mention the fact that some gardeners claim that there are regions where the seedlings of this currant survive with great difficulty and often die. Unfortunately, there are no statistics confirming or refuting this, and therefore scientists shrug their shoulders. Therefore, if you are going to plant Black Dashkovskaya currants on your site, we strongly recommend that you familiarize yourself with the list of regions suitable for it. Suddenly, yours is not on this list.
Planting and caring for the plant
Of course, in order for a plant to really have all of the above positive qualities, you must take care to provide it with proper care.
However, the most important procedure for any plant is not watering, feeding, and even not scrapping. This is a landing, and therefore we will talk about it in the first place. In the end, it is not for nothing that they say that it is she who makes up almost fifty percent of the success of the future plant.
Place and time of boarding
Perhaps our instructions should begin with choosing the right place for planting, since by choosing the wrong place, you can significantly complicate your care for the plant in the future.
First of all, you should pay attention that the hole in which you will plant currants should be located at least on a small hill, since thanks to such a landscape you will ensure that rainwater flows down the slope of the hill, and they will not stagnate in the hole of the plant.
It is also advisable to find a place near the fence or near the wall of the house, since otherwise the currants will receive great harm from blowing cold winds. They can greatly weaken the immunity of a crop, which will greatly reduce its resistance to disease.
Do not forget about the groundwater deposits, which must be located at a depth of one and a half or even two meters under the hole of the plant. Thus, you will protect your currants from waterlogging.
As for the soil, which is also a very important component of planting this plant, it should be selected in such a way that it is the lightest and most fertile.Also, it must have good air and moisture permeability.
Ready-made soils on a loamy basis, which are not difficult to purchase on the market or in a specialized store, are best suited. However, you can cook them yourself, if, of course, you are sure that you know how to do it.
It is best, contrary to general assumptions, to plant in the fall, but always before the cold weather sets in. October is best suited for the procedure, or rather, its very beginning, when the weather is suitable for stable and effective development of the root system.
Immediately before carrying out the planting procedure, you should dig up the ground on the site, and also add useful organic and mineral fertilizers to it, which will help the currant root system to take root much faster in a new habitat, and also grow enough to safely survive the winter.
It is also recommended to mulch the trunk circle immediately after planting, however, we will talk about the beneficial properties of mulch and its importance for growing a plant a little later.
Black Dashkovskaya currant: the planting process in detail
In order for your plant to easily tolerate the cold, as well as to assimilate and accept your care, you will need to carry out the correct planting according to the instructions described below.
First of all, you will have to dig a hole for the bush, the depth of which will be about forty centimeters, and the width - no more than sixty centimeters.
After that, a mixture of humus, as well as mineral fertilizers, is poured onto the very bottom of the pit, which will serve as top dressing for your plant. The dosage of these fertilizers should be calculated according to the instructions on the packages, since fertilizers are completely different.
In addition to the mineral complex and humus, you should also introduce a little superphosphate - about one hundred grams, as well as potassium sulfate - no more than forty grams.
After you have filled in and mixed all the necessary ingredients, you should plant the seedling itself. It is placed in the pit at a slight angle - no more than forty-five degrees, and its roots are very neatly spread over the surface of the slide that you formed at the bottom of the pit.
After the seedling has been established, you can sprinkle it with fertile soil. As it falls asleep, we strongly recommend that you compact the soil to avoid the formation of air bubbles, which are harmful to the root system. At the same time, when filling the hole, you need to ensure that the root collar is five to six centimeters above the surface.
The final stage in planting currants is abundant watering, which will allow the plant to take root in the ground before the cold weather begins, and also help it survive the winter.
It is also worth mentioning the planting of a large number of bushes, since the distance between them must be respected. Otherwise, the plants will interfere with each other's growth: their root systems and crowns will intertwine, and you will receive less harvest.
In order to avoid this, the distance between the bushes should be at least one meter, and between the rows - about two meters.
Growing Black Dashkovskaya currants involves a large number of procedures that must be followed if you want your bush to be effective and bear a lot of fruit.
However, it should be noted that these procedures are not at all complicated, and therefore you can easily cope with them, and they will not cause you any difficulties.
However, so that no questions arise for sure, we suggest that you go through each procedure and consider it as carefully as possible in order to completely avoid misunderstandings.
What watering does the Black Dashkovskaya currant require?
In fact, this procedure is one of the simplest and most understandable in terms of timing. You do not need any watering schedules, but you can determine when the bush needs moisture by simply looking at the circle near the trunk: if the earth in it begins to dry out, then it is certainly time to water the plant.
However, if you want more specific numbers to make sure you are doing everything right, then you should focus on one watering per week.
However, this is not the gold standard, since the earth can dry out at different rates depending on the weather. For example, in hot summer, the number of irrigations increases to two or three per week, and in rainy weather, they can not be carried out at all, because nature will take care of this itself.
However, in no case should you neglect watering during the ripening period of the berries, since at this time the plants most of all need moisture. It is best to irrigate in the evening, as the moisture will be able to infuse well in the soil and be well absorbed into it before the scorching sun rises.
It is not advisable to spend more than ten liters in just one watering, as this can greatly harm the root system.
Absolutely all professional gardeners are sure that four dressings per season are enough for the Black Dashkovskaya currant bush. A large amount is simply not required, and therefore we advise you to stick to this particular number.
The first feeding takes place in early spring - before the buds dissolve, and this fertilization is directed to make it easier for the plant to cope with these very buds, and also to bring more flowers later. Also, this dressing is aimed at protecting against waking up pests, and therefore urea or saltpeter is perfect.
The second feeding is carried out two weeks after the first and consists in feeding the plant with organic matter, which it will need to successfully grow future fruits.
Also, organic matter is used directly during the pouring of the fruits, due to which they become larger and juicy, and therefore we strongly do not recommend you skip this top dressing.
Well, the last feeding is carried out after the harvest, and includes various mineral complexes that will help the plant to survive the winter safely and prepare for the next season.
Loosening and weeding
These procedures are especially necessary, since weeds are the main enemy of almost any variety of currants. You will have to get rid of them anyway, but there is a procedure that will reduce the number of weeds at times.
This procedure is called mulching, and it consists in the fact that you cover the near-stem circle of the plant with sawdust, fallen leaves, needles or straw. Such a shelter allows not only to retain moisture in the soil, but also blocks access to sunlight for the weeds, which makes them develop much more slowly and sluggishly, and, therefore, it will be much easier to weed out.
As for the weeding itself, it is advisable to carry it out in parallel with mulching, and the mulch should be replaced at approximately every third watering. Thus, you can protect your plant from any misfortune using simple tools and methods.
What diseases and pests can be affected by Black Currant Dashkovskaya
As it was said in the description of the variety, this currant has a rather outstanding immunity, and therefore it quite well resists a large number of dangerous diseases. Nevertheless, it, of course, cannot be completely protected from everything, and therefore there are those diseases that pose a threat to the Black Dashkovo currant, and protection against them should be considered in more detail.
Fortunately, it will most often be in one simple word - prevention.Indeed, it is much easier to prevent a disease than to suffer with getting rid of it.
The most effective and complex preventive drugs are Bordeaux mixture, as well as solutions of copper sulfate. If you want to more faithfully protect your plant from various fungal diseases, which include powdery mildew, you should resort to treatment with good fungicides.
However, diseases are not the only attack that can pose a threat to the plant. Also, a rather dangerous enemy of currants are various insects that constantly strive to devour not only your crop, but also your entire plant.
Unfortunately, you cannot get rid of insects without the use of chemicals, and therefore insecticides of a wide spectrum of action will serve you well. If preventive measures were not enough, and the insect nevertheless attacked the bush, then more pinpoint treatment should be resorted to, and also, possibly, the removal of infected parts.
Treatment with various drugs, however, is not the only effective way to prevent diseases, as well as insect attacks. In order to completely eliminate fears about them from your life, you can also carry out weeding and mulching more regularly, as this prevents harmful organisms from accumulating underground.
Also, soil moisture plays a very important role, and therefore you must ensure that it does not exceed the required standards. Otherwise, there is a high risk of developing fungal diseases, which will bring you a lot of trouble.
Well, and finally, it should be said about the simplest, but still no less important condition: cleanliness on the site is a guarantee of the health of your plants, and therefore you must definitely remove all rotten parts of the plant, as well as branches, leaves and fruits that have just fallen to the ground, because they can be carriers of infection.
In almost all plants, pruning is divided into two parts: formative and sanitary. Formative pruning is most often carried out in early spring - even before the active movement of juices begins, but sanitary pruning - in the fall - before leaving for the winter.
The essence of sanitary pruning is that you must remove all damaged branches, as they can become carriers of an infection that is dangerous for the plant, which in the end will bring a lot of trouble.
As for the spring formative pruning, it is carried out only in the first few years of the seedling's life, but it does not play a key role in how effective it will become in the future.
The fact is that the forming scraps determine the thickening and shape of the crown, and therefore they will also directly determine the quantity and quality of the future crop.
In all subsequent years, after the crown is fully formed, you will only have to make sure that the branches do not grow too long and large, since smaller branches are enough for active fruiting.
However, a few more words should be said about this procedure, because, as you understand, it is not absolutely safe. This can hardly be said about the procedure during which you cause deliberate damage to the plant. Therefore, your task is to reduce this damage to a minimum, and this can be done using well-sharpened tools, as well as processing the cuts with garden pitch.
As already mentioned, the Black Dashkovskaya currant variety has excellent winter hardiness, and therefore it survives even the most severe winters relatively easily. However, this does not mean that the bush does not need any protection at all. After all, even if you can go for a week without food, just imagine how you will feel after such a week.
Of course, this also does not mean that the bush must be wrapped in agrofibre before the onset of each winter. This only means that such precautions as a thick layer of mulch and whitewash will definitely not be superfluous, and therefore should not be neglected.
Also, to make it easier for the plant to cope with the snow, we recommend that you bend the branches of the plant to the soil surface. If especially low temperatures are expected in your region (below twenty-five degrees), then you should wrap up the resulting structure.
Black currant Dashkovskaya: transportability and keeping quality
You already know that this variety is amazing not only for personal cultivation, but also for sale. Therefore, it is logical to assume that it has all the necessary qualities for convenient trading, which include the transportability and keeping quality of berries.
However, unfortunately, the berries of this variety do not lie for too long. However, this is not the fault of the currant itself, but rather the wines of the whole family, because such plants are rarely stored for more than ten days.
The good news, however, is that you can artificially increase this time frame by creating the most suitable storage conditions for the fruit. The temperature should be about ten degrees Celsius, the humidity should be eighty-seven percent.
Thus, you can extend the shelf life to almost two weeks, which will provide you with a convenient and measured sale of goods.
As for transportability, everything is better with it: berries can be transported over medium distances without any damage, however, for longer transportation, advanced packaging is required.
Of course, there are no varieties without flaws. They all have some disadvantages that are sometimes disappointing. Nevertheless, we should often look at the benefits of a particular plant, because it is in them that their strength lies.
In this article, you got acquainted with the magnificent Black Dashkovskaya variety, and we hope that you have learned a lot of new and interesting things about this wonderful currant. We wish you the best of luck in growing this wonderful culture, as well as your comprehension of gardening art.