Chinese radish Margelan: description, cultivation
The article presents the Chinese Margelan radish: description, differences from Daikon, varieties, rules for planting, care, protection, collection and storage.
Margelan radish, first appeared on the territory of China, and later came to the Fergana Valley in the Uzbek city of Margilan, from where it got its name. For centuries, this vegetable has been cultivated in the countries of Central Asia, which were previously annexed to the Soviet Union. On the territory of Russia, the variety, unlike the Japanese Daikon radish and radish, is not very common.
Chinese margelan radish: origin
Chinese radish Margelan
Margelan or as it is also called Chinese radish is an annual plant of the Cabbage family and belongs to the genus Radish. Has a lot of differences in description, which is why confusion arises. This probably influenced the fact that she is not very popular among gardeners. Having planted in your garden, it is not always possible to get the harvest that was expected.
For several thousand years, the plant has grown in Asia, but it cannot be found in the wild. This group of classification also includes the radish, which is very popular among gardeners, the daikon, black radish, Lobova and some other subspecies, which are actively spreading in our country.
Margilanskaya or Loba (Raphanus sativus L.convar. Lobo Sazon. Et Stankev. Var. Lobo) is a type of sowing radish, which is somewhere between daikon and radish, while it has very strong differences from them. This culture does not belong to the early ripening ones like radishes and has a certain bitterness, which the daikon does not have. Margilan radish has its own, unlike any other, taste, external signs and features in cultivation.
Lobo was described in the 70s as a group of cultivars, and in the mid 80s it was classified as one of the varieties of sowing radish. It was then that 25 more varieties were added to the State Register of our country, among which the most popular were Margelansky and Elephant Tusk.
Chinese Margelan radish: differences from Daikon radish, description
Chinese radish Margelan
Margilan Chinese radish is very similar to Japanese - Daikon, therefore, sometimes, even those who produce seeds do not inform gardeners correctly. Really. These cultures have similarities, but they are not the same thing. You can determine what kind of radish in front of you by the size of the root crops. In Daikon they are larger than in Margilanskaya and their weight is 0.5 kilograms more. The ripening period at Margilanskaya lasts longer, the leaves are wider, and the taste of the fruit has a sharpness that Daikon does not have.
Description of Margelan radish
At the beginning of the 21st century, companies such as Lance and Prisk turned to the State Register with a request to register the Margelansky variety, and two years later their request was granted and the cultivation of vegetables in private plots was officially allowed in all regions of our country.
I would like to note that this variety has been cultivated before and has never been removed from the State Register. The point is that these two Moscow companies have made a proposal to include an existing crop in the lists of those varieties that have been tested and recommended.
The Margelansky radish variety has an average ripening period, which lasts about two months from the moment of appearance of two true leaves until full ripening. It can be stored for a long time without loss of useful properties and presentation.
Leaves are medium in size, erect, resembling the shape of an egg. They are painted green with a yellow tint, and are covered with denticles along the edges. Elliptical root vegetable, may be completely green, may be partially white.
It is interesting to know that on the territory of Asian countries, Margelan radish, which has white blotches on the root crop, is considered a marriage and is destroyed. Only those that are exclusively green in color are used as seed material.
Margelan radish has a white, very juicy, sweetish pulp with a little bitterness. The weight of one root crop reaches 300 grams, from 1 sq. meters, on average you can collect 3 kilograms.
It is important to know that you should not buy Margelan radish, which weighs about 500 grams, as this signals that too much nitrogen fertilizers were used during cultivation, which became nitrates.
Chinese radish Margelanskaya: varieties
Margelan radish has no varieties, it is a separate variety in itself. As for the forehead (the original variety), for 2018, according to information from the State Register, there were 25 varieties. There, in addition to the famous Margelansky and the Tusk of the elephant, there are those that can weigh no more than 180 grams or exceed 500 grams. May have red, green, white or pink flesh and rind. They can be rounded, celendric in shape, or they can resemble a turnip. All varieties have a sweetish taste, but in some the bitterness is only slightly noticeable, and in some it is pronounced. Some may have long shelf life and some are intended to be eaten immediately after collection.
Elephant fang - This variety is most often mistaken for a Japanese daikon. It appeared in the lists of the State Register in the late 70s, thanks to the seed association "Sortsemovosch". This variety can be grown throughout Russia.
It has a cylindrical shape about 60 centimeters long and weighs no more than 500 grams. The root crop has a smooth, white, sometimes with green shades, surface. The pulp with a very pleasant sweetish with slightly perceptible bitterness, taste. Always juicy and crispy.
You can eat both fruits and leaves, which contain many different vitamins and minerals.
The elephant tusk is a medium-ripening variety that lasts about 2 months from the moment of germination. From 1 sq. meters can be stably collected about 6 kilograms. This variety is not suitable for long-term storage.
Ruby surprise - this variety was recommended for cultivation in 2015, thanks to a group of scientists from the company "Agrofirma Aelita"
It has an average ripening period and is ready to harvest 2 months after the appearance of the first true leaves.
A slightly drooping rosette forms at the Ruby Surprise. The root crop weighing about 240 grams is rounded and colored white with a green spot at the base. The taste of the red pulp is very pleasant and juicy.
From 1 sq. meters can be collected up to 4 kilograms. The shelf life is short and it is intended for quick consumption. This variety has a protective patent valid until 2045.
Severyanka- the fruits of this variety are the largest and have been allowed for cultivation in private gardens since the beginning of the 21st century thanks to the “Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing.
The root vegetable is pink with a tinge of red, similar to a radish except for its size. Its weight can reach 900 grams. The leaves are slightly raised, the root crop has a rounded, flattened shape with a pointed end. The white pulp has a sweet and pronounced pungent taste, incredibly juicy. From 1 sq. meter plant can produce up to 5 kilograms.
Severyanka is popular not only for its size, but also for its taste, which is considered the most pleasant. In addition, it perfectly tolerates even harsh climatic conditions. The variety is intended for use in autumn and winter. Shelf life is longer than those described above, but it is not able to retain all its properties until the end of winter.
Planting Chinese radish, timing
It is very easy to grow and care for the Margelan radish variety. However, some rules should be followed so that the work is not in vain and a good harvest of high-quality fruits is obtained. When growing, it is very important to consider planting timing, watering and location. If you do not take this into account, then arrows may appear, small fruits with voids inside and with increased bitterness may form.
Growing green radish in the garden is very easy if you follow all the terms.
You should not focus on daikon or radish, since applying the same time frame can ruin the entire planting.
All these vegetable crops can grow in conditions where the daylight hours are short. With sunlight, which comes in for more than 12 hours per day, the color arrow appears earlier than the root crop grows. In radishes, the period of active growth and development does not last long, having sown it in the spring, it has time to ripen. It will take a longer time for Daikon to grow root crops. Even having planted it early, it will only be able to reach maturity in southern Russia or Ukraine.
Margelan radish and all varieties of the forehead, there is no point in sowing in the spring. At the moment when the soil is sufficiently warmed up for seed germination, the daylight hours will already be too long, and there is simply not enough time for the root crop to develop, since the time between the appearance of the first leaves until full maturation is long.
On the territory of Central Asia, Margelan radish is sown twice a year. The crops that are sown in the spring are removed in the summer, and those that are sown in the fall are removed in the winter. But here climatic conditions must be taken into account, this is due to the fact that the soil warms up many times faster, and there is practically no difference in the length of daylight hours during the seasons.
It is for this reason that in order to grow the Margilan radish in the regions of our country, in Ukraine or in Belarus, it is necessary to plant it in open ground only in late summer. Even if the air temperature drops sharply, the seeds will have time to ripen even in the North-West regions, before stable frosts begin, the radish will gain weight.
Sowing takes place from July to August. In the North-West region, this procedure is carried out somewhat earlier, and in the south it can be carried out later.
It is important to know that Margelan radish does not tolerate high temperatures exceeding +25 degrees. This affects the active development of peduncles, as well as long daylight hours.
Before planting the radish, you need to dig deep into the soil, but not to the same depth as when planting the White Fang. The root crop of Margelan radish, as a rule, is 70% above ground level, but it also happens in a different way. In the case of increased soil density, it may appear above the surface by only 50%. Also, when digging up the ground, it is important to remember that a long root covered with a large number of small roots needs space for growth. Thanks to him, the plant receives the necessary moisture and nutrients, the lack of which will very badly affect the development of the plant and the size of the fruits.
Soil preparation should take place 14 days or more before planting seeds. This will allow the soil to be saturated with oxygen and become more even. On the prepared site, if necessary, you can add wood ash, river sand, humus from leaves, as well as peat. This will help improve the structure of the soil.
It is important to know that humus should not be added before sowing, as the plant will receive too much nitrogen, and this will negatively affect the roots. The fact is that nitrogen stimulates the active growth of vegetation, which stops the development of fruits. For this reason, voids form in root crops, nitrates accumulate, the pulp becomes coarse, the taste changes for the worse, and the shelf life is significantly reduced.
The introduction of humus into the soil should take place in the fall.
Also, compost should not be added to the soil before sowing radish, because it inhibits the development of the root crop due to its lumpy and tight structure.
Considering that the radish is planted at the end of the summer season, potatoes, legumes or onions can be planted before it. The area where these vegetables were previously grown will be an excellent place for growing the Margelan variety. You should not plant where cruciferous vegetables were previously grown.
Before sowing, it is necessary to prepare small holes between which there should be a distance of 20 centimeters along the row, and 40 centimeters between the rows. Complex mineral fertilizers are added to the holes, which are mixed with the ground and watered abundantly.
In one hole, you need to put 3 or 4 seeds and cover them with a two centimeter layer of dry earth. Watering after planting is not necessary so that the water does not wash out the seeds.
Pre-watering will compact the soil, which will not allow the seeds to fall through and this moisture will be enough for them to germinate.
To speed up germination, you need to cover the area with a film. If this is not done, then the first leaves can already be seen after 7 days.
After the appearance of 2 or 3 true leaves, it is necessary to select the strongest one for each hole, and remove the others.
A very convenient method of sowing can be sowing seeds in the furrows, but in this case more seedlings are removed. This is probably why gardeners prefer the first planting method.
Growing Margelan radish
When cultivating Margelan radish, it is important to pay enough attention to it. It is necessary to regularly cleanse the soil from weeds, which take away a lot of important plant elements. It is necessary to loosen the soil so that oxygen and nutrients can better flow to the roots and, of course, water it on time. Having deprived the plant of moisture, which is important for it, it will begin to dry out, which will lead to the death of young seedlings. If you deprive of water during the formation of root crops, then they will become coarse, voids will appear in them, the size will decrease significantly and the taste will deteriorate. It is necessary to ensure that the soil is always moist, but without stagnation of water.
From the moment the first leaves appear until full ripening, a lot of time passes and therefore the plant will need fertilizers. They are not required only if the soil is well fertilized in the fall or if it is fertile soil. As for other cases, the plant will need to be fed twice per season.
The first feeding occurs after the plant has been thinned out. The second, after the emergence of a root crop above the surface of the earth.
If the seeds were planted in the furrows, then two weeks after the first thinning, the second must be thinned. It is important to remember that the distance between the seedlings was at least 15 centimeters, so that the growing root crop had enough room to grow not only in depth, but also in width.
Excess leaves that have turned yellow, dropped and interfere with the flow of light to the root crops, must be removed. Such a procedure will have a positive effect on the quality of the crop and will protect against the appearance of arrows in case of high temperatures.
It is important to remember that you can cut off no more than 2 sheets of paper at a time.
Diseases and pests
Margelan radish has good immunity and therefore diseases rarely affect it. Diseases can be triggered by frequent stagnation of water in the soil, especially when it comes to dense soil.In this case, putrefactive diseases appear.
As for insects, they love this plant and often harm it. Especially often you can find harmful insects living on all cultures belonging to the cruciferous family.
Slugs - you can deal with this pest with the help of metaldehyde. To do this, you need to scatter it between the bushes. For preventive purposes, leaves that have fallen to the ground should be removed.
Cruciferous flea - The best thing to do is to keep it out. To do this, after watering the plant, you need to pour wood ash or tobacco dust on the ground or sprinkle them on the leaves. Alternatively, spread the wormwood between the rows.
Margelan radish can be eaten even before it is fully ripe. It is enough to wait for the growth of root crops, their taste will be excellent even at this stage. As a rule, the instructions on the seed package indicate the period when the crop should be harvested. In early ripening varieties, this moment occurs 2 months after germination, in middle and late ripening varieties, this occurs after 3-4 months. Leaving ripe vegetables for too long is not worth it, as their quality will greatly decrease, but a few days will not change anything.
Margelan radish is resistant to short-term freezing, but harvesting must be completed before the temperature of 0 degrees becomes stable. Leaving them for a longer time will reduce the shelf life.
Harvested in the morning when the weather is dry.
If the soil is predominantly sandy, then the radish is easily pulled out of the ground, but if the earth is dense, then you will have to harvest with the help of a shovel.
Chinese radish Margelan: rules, storage methods
After the harvest is harvested, you need to shake off the soil from the roots, and peel off thin roots using a soft cloth. You cannot peel root vegetables with a knife, this can cause cuts, which, even being very shallow, will affect the fact that the vegetables cannot be stored. Further, rejection is carried out. All damaged radishes are set aside for immediate consumption or for conservation. Then all the tops are removed and only petioles no more than 2 centimeters long remain. It is better not to cut the leaves, but to twist them carefully.
It is believed that the radish has a long shelf life, but one must understand that it will not last until spring. The maximum period is 4 months after harvest with loss of presentation and nutrients. The radish retains all its properties only for one month.
The best storage conditions in winter are a dark and cool place (+ 1- + 2 degrees) with a humidity of 90%
Please note that a well-ventilated area is not suitable for storage. From this, the quality of root crops decreases.
Storing Margelan radish in the cellar:
Root vegetables can be stored well if they are immersed in wet sand in a wooden box.
Observing the temperature regime, humidity, your vegetables can be stored for 4 months. If, when culling, you make a mistake and put one damaged vegetable in the box, then it will start to rot and infect all the others.
Storing Margelan radish at home:
If you do not plan to store the radish for more than a month, then it can be placed in the refrigerator. To do this, put it in plastic bags and put it in a vegetable drawer.
Margelan radish - this delicious can add variety to the diet in winter and saturate the body with a large amount of vitamins and microelements. Cultivation will not be difficult, even for a novice gardener, it is only important to follow small rules.
Chinese radish Margelan