Plant Adiantum: description, cultivation, types
The article describes the plant Adiantum: varieties, features, rules of care, guidance for growing, reproduction, protection.
The second name of this plant is adiant. The species belongs to the fern genus of the pteris family. You can count up to 200 varieties. The name itself comes from the Greek "moisten" or "moisten". The final name translates as "waterproof flower". The name was promoted by the plant's feature of repelling water with the help of leaves, the leaves simply do not get wet.
The culture grows mainly in the tropical climate of South America and East Asia. The preference for the composition of the soil leaves maidenhair for a very fertile, well-moistened soil. The place of growth is the predominance of rocks, near springs and waterfalls. More experienced gardeners opt for this plant due to its decorative effect like a fern. Decorate rooms, greenhouses. A rather spectacular appearance attracts the attention of many outsiders who are not related to the cultivation of the maidenhair. But there is one more plus - these are healing properties.
Plant Maiden: features
A species of fern, a perennial herbaceous plant, has a thin, creeping rhizome, which is covered with matte black or brownish scales. The leaves are arranged alternately, reaching a length of 20-25 cm and also covered with scales. The foliage is very strongly dissected, smooth to the touch, green, of a pronounced color. The external form is fan-shaped.
For gardens, choose the main varieties, stop-like, for indoor conditions the variety is recommended - "venereal hair", as well as transparent maidenhair, the Ruddy variety, a gentle look and many others, like them, most adapted to home cultivation. There is no flowering as such, so the plant is grown for one purpose - decorating with deciduous plants. In terms of illumination, it prefers more shaded areas. Therefore, it is recommended to exhibit in rooms facing north and east.
The temperature for comfortable growth, in the summer, does not exceed +22 degrees. For the winter season, we cool the plant a little, lower the degree to +15. the quality of watering is an important point. It is necessary to perform the procedure strictly regularly, systematically. For the summer season, the watering interval is 2 times a week. Autumn-winter time, once a week.
The Maidenhair plant requires a special system for watering: lower the pot into a container of water, that is, make bottom watering. It is not advisable to get water on the leaves. Since the predecessors of the house fern live in the tropics, the humidity in the room should be increased, additional irrigation of the foliage is necessary in a particularly hot period of summer, it is recommended every day using a sprayer.
Fern feed should be special; you can freely purchase the necessary composition in the store. The label indicates - for deciduous ornamental plants. But it is advisable to use it only in 1 \ 2 dose from that recommended on the package. Add food only for the growing season. You shouldn't do this in winter sing. The plant at that time is not active, negative consequences are possible. The rest period for the plant begins on October days and ends at the end of February.
There is no need to constantly replant the plant, once every three years is enough.
The plant propagates in two ways: division of the root system and spores. Of the most dangerous insects, one can distinguish: aphids, spider mites, scale insects, mealy worm. With proper care, there are no statistics on diseases. If the rules for caring for the plant are violated, there is simply a loss of external decorative purpose.
Among the special properties, the healing of the plant can be emphasized. How is it expressed? Used by traditional medicine in China and Western Europe.
Plant Maiden: home care
Illumination, humidity and temperature conditions
Home conditions should not go against the usual habitat very much. When grown in a room, a fern reacts very negatively to a large amount of sunlight, especially direct sunlight. The formed partial shade allows the plant to feel very comfortable. Excellent development and growth. From here, it is recommended to use windows facing north and east. From the extra amount of light, the entire decorative look is disturbed, the lace of greenish foliage gradually dies off.
Home maidenhair categorically does not tolerate dust accumulations, strong drafts. It is necessary to protect the fern from all this. He needs a sufficient amount of fresh and clean air. In the room where you grow the plant, you must systematically ventilate and do not forget about the need for wet cleaning. It is not recommended to put pots with ferns on kitchen windowsills, as the air there is very heavy, capable of ruining a delicate plant. Tobacco smoke can kill the plant.
There is no need to raise the temperature in the room just because the Maidenhair is a tropical plant. No more than +22, a hotter temperature has a detrimental effect on the plant, even a destructive effect. For winter dormancy, the plant is moved to a cooler place, where the temperature regime is maintained at least +13 and does not exceed +15 degrees Celsius. Do not put a pot with a plant near any heating device. Excessive movement and frequent coups by the parties also adversely affect the well-being of the fern.
The plant Adiantum is very fond of good moisture, therefore, in both winter and summer seasons, it is necessary to systematically irrigate with a spray bottle and only with warm water. At a cold room temperature, humidification is not recommended, the procedure in this case will only harm.
Types and time for feeding
Concerning plant nutrition. Top dressing must be carried out strictly in April days. Repeated procedure in autumn, in September. Only drug solutions are used, dry dressing is excluded. Fern needs special food, it can be purchased in the store with a note on the packaging - for deciduous and decorative indoor plants. We use only half of the proportion recommended on the package. It is imperative to read the instructions for use and follow all parameters. The frequency of fertilization is approximately 1 time per 20 days. During winter dormancy, top dressing is not applied.
External indicators are the main purpose of growing a fern at home. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the appearance of the bush and prune in a timely manner. For attractiveness, it is recommended to cut off unnecessary green cover regularly, mainly in spring. Old, wilted, starting to turn yellow leaves must be removed. When pruning is carried out in a timely manner and in accordance with all the rules, the plant is able to spend all the saved resources on young shoots, from which the decorative appearance is formed. After each pruning, the plant is recommended to be irrigated and watered by the root method.
The need for watering
Ferns generally need constant moisture. A home fern requires increased watering. The most important thing is to moisturize systematically and regularly. Overdrying the soil is strictly not recommended. When the root ball dries up, the foliage dries up and the plant dies. When moisture stagnates in the hill, rot appears on the root system, which can damage the root with the subsequent death of the fern.To avoid such a situation, to exclude uneven watering, it is necessary to apply the lower watering method. A pot with a fern is placed in any basin filled with water at room temperature, temperature drops are negatively perceived by the plant. Remove the pot when the soil mixture is fully moistened in the container with the plant. Next, move the pot to the sink to drain off excess moisture. Already the last stage of watering is transferred to a permanent place. During winter dormancy, the plant should not be watered often, but it is still necessary to moisten it and only in the described way. During the summer season, watering is carried out a couple of times a week, and in winter, cut to once every 7 days.
Indoor maidenhair: transplant, breeding methods
This type of fern has the peculiarity of growing and developing very slowly, and also prefers tightness in a pot, where it grows safely. That is why the transplant should be performed only when the roots begin to crawl out of the drainage holes. The regularity of transplanting is recommended by experienced gardeners. This is no more than once every three years. More frequent transplants only for special indications. When the plant is old, it is not moved to a new pot, just the top layer of the soil mixture is changed, about 70 mm deep. This will be enough, since the plant practically does not grow, but simply maintains its vital activity from year to year.
A fern has a very powerful root system already in origin, therefore, for growing in a room, we choose a pot that is spacious, wide enough. The material of the pot is preferable to wood or ceramics, the bottom necessarily contains large holes for good drainage, in addition to the holes, the necessary layer of drainage composition is placed on the bottom. The fern substrate is necessarily acidified and very loose in consistency, saturation with humus is only welcomed by the plant. For this, the following composition is used: leaf soil 1 part + peat 2 parts. Place the soil mixture on top of the drainage, and transfer the plant itself into a new pot. Why transshipment method? The fern plant is very fragile and the root system fits this concept. Therefore, we try to do the maximum harm to the roots that have not yet matured. Next, very carefully fill all visible voids with soil mixture, do not need to tamp hard, the substrate should be in a loose state.
The main methods of fern breeding are two methods: root division and seed cultivation.
Below we will consider each method separately.
—division of rhizome... This method is quite acceptable under room conditions. We take out the already strengthened, adult bush from the container, carefully divide it into several parts. The separation tool must be well sharpened and sterile processed after the last gardening activities in order to avoid infection with various diseases. The sharpness of the tool is necessary for a more accurate cut without damaging the young shoots. Each cut point is treated with charcoal powder. Next, plant each section in separate containers, where the soil mixture is prepared according to the method described above. Most importantly, the bush must be well inspected before dividing. When the number of growth points is small, the plant cannot be divided. Otherwise, it simply will not recover after this procedure and will die.
Already planted, separated bushes begin their activity after a long period of time. This is a slow process, so do not strain when the bush does not move in growth and development. This is normal.
Before dividing the root, you should wait for the partial drying of the soil coma, and do not deepen the root collars of the divots very much in new pots. If this recommendation is not followed, rot will form on the roots.
—seed cultivation... Indoor maidenhair can also be propagated by spores. For such a procedure, we take a low container, fill it with a ready-made mixture of soil, consisting of: peat, sand, leafy soil, at a rate of 2: 1: 1. The filled substrate is moistened, but not just with room water, but with boiling water. When the substrate has cooled, the spores are placed on the surface, the container is covered with a film on top, maybe with glass. The container is installed in a warm place, always dark and without drafts. Disputes before sowing undergo a disinfection procedure, with the help of a spray bottle, treat with a solution of potassium permanganate, very weak in concentration. For a quick germination result, you can adjust the bottom heating of the seed container, by about +21 degrees. There is no specific period for seed germination. It varies from 1 week to three months. After the first shoots appear, it is necessary to remove the surface cover. Sprouted seedlings are moved to a well-lit place where there is no direct sunlight. After the appearance of a couple of independent leaves, pick into separate containers already filled with the ready-made peat mixture.
Plant Adiantum: pests and diseases
This plant, by nature, has a special substance in the leaves that can scare off any pest. However, today there are such harmful insects that have adapted to this property of the plant, various poisonous substances, even of enhanced action. It is for this reason that aphids, scale insects, spider mites and various mealy worms may appear. But with proper care and proper transplantation, the plant is already protected.
If a scabbard is found on a bush, a collection is applied with a special brush or cotton swab, be sure to treat it with alcohol before that. The soap solution can be used when aphids appear. After processing, the solution is washed off with warm water. When the defeat of aphids is of large-scale importance, you cannot do without a special tool. The following solutions can be used: Derris, Inta-vira, Fitoverm and similar substances. Can be purchased in a special store after consulting the seller. Mealy worm can be eradicated by spraying with insecticides: Aktara, Konfidor, Fitoverm and other drugs. The presence of a fern on the bushes can be excluded by applying treatment with Fitoverm or Actellik's solution.
The fern has natural immunity to various types of diseases. But improper care always has consequences. And they are expressed in the weakening of the plant and the weak resistance to diseases. The decorative purpose of the fern is violated when planting at home. For example, low water or irregular watering will cause the plant to dry out the foliage and form brown spots along the framing edge. Being near gas stoves leads to the same consequences. With very dry indoor air, massive foliage begins to fall. That is, regular, systematic watering and timely wet cleaning in the room are important factors that are responsible for the proper development of the plant and its presentation.
When you observe the fading of the leaf cover, this means only one, very large amount of sunlight. The pot should be moved to a shaded area. When twisting the foliage, but not drying out, the question will arise about an excess of moisture in the room, and the temperature regime is violated. The degree is too low.
When growing any plant in a room, growers periodically face various problems.
Some of the most popular ones are discussed below:
-decreased humidity in the room will lead to drying of the shoots and tips of the foliage. The same symptoms occur in extreme heat;
-systematic overflow of soil at a sufficiently low temperature in the room leads to pallor, lethargy of the leaves. If the problem is not eliminated, rotting of the root system develops, the consequence is the death of the plant. What is the right thing to do in such a situation? Just follow the recommendations;
- it is possible to face the problem of foliage drying out during the winter dormant period, when the room temperature is too high. It is necessary to immediately move the plant to a cooler place, but at the same time systemically moisten the soil in the pot. The room temperature does not exceed 18 degrees. When the plant is given first aid on time and the roots are not damaged, then new foliage will necessarily form in a new growing season;
-The hit of active sunlight on the fern for a long time leads to pallor, yellowness and drying of the foliage;
- massive yellowing of foliage means insufficient watering or the need for additional plant nutrition.
If you know the signs of various manifestations on the plant, then you can provide timely assistance to the fern in time and save your pet.
Plant Adiantum: pros and cons, properties
The purpose of the plant is not only in decorative design, but also in the use of its healing qualities. The leaves contain various essential oils, flavonoids, lipids, steroids, phenol carboxylic acids, and derivatives of these acids. Various infusions, syrups and powders based on the leaves of the adiantum fern are already widely used in Western European territory. Infusion and syrup are used as an antipyretic agent, the expectorant effect of such infusions is used. The water infusion has proven itself to be an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent.
Means prepared on the basis of maidenhair have a very wide spectrum of action. For example, diseases of the liver, spleen, bladder, respiratory system. When a rabid animal is bitten, you can make a lotion from the plant sap, or rather, only the foliage is used in this case. The goal is detoxification. In case of a malignant ulcer, it is also possible to use juice, but it is advisable to consult a doctor before use. Latent reactions to the components of the infusion, syrup, juice are possible. Chinese medicine uses a decoction from the leaf cover, the main direction of the decoction is the cure for alcohol addiction.
In cosmetology, a decoction of the leaves is used to reduce a large percentage of dandruff formation. The broth is used to rinse the hair. You can use foliage juice, just add to a bowl of water to rinse your head. If psoriasis is detected, an alcoholic tincture of maidenhair is used.
Varieties of the Maidenhair
In the wild, it can be found in the Crimean and Caucasian mountains, also grows in Central Asia. Preference in soil is given to limestone, well-moistened stones located near any body of water. The rhizome is relatively thin, predominantly black in color. The name followed from the external similarity: the leaf plates are formed in the form of a fan, very delicate and soft to the touch, grow directly on elongated, almost 25 cm, cuttings. The color of the leaves is green. The cultivation of this species takes place at home.
This species is considered to be one of the most beautiful plants in this direction. The leaf cover is of a very delicate form, the gracefulness of plantation, even from afar, attracts the attention of every connoisseur of beauty.In the wild, such beauty can be found among the deciduous forest of East Asia and North America. The bush is not very large, only up to 60 centimeters in height. Glossy reflection of foliage, green tint. The formation of the leaf is pinnate, slightly dissected. There are small cuts along the edge of the sheet plate. The leaves are arranged horizontally on thin cuttings. This species has good frost resistance. Lowering temperatures to -30 degrees does not harm the plant.
The most popular varieties of this type can be emphasized:
1) compactum - grows up to 35 centimeters;
2) Gingerbread - a very dwarf growth of this fern attracts the attention of gardeners for indoor plants, only about 15 cm;
3) Aleutikum-the height of this plant is also low, does not exceed 12 cm, but it grows in width up to 20 centimeters. This variety is most commonly used in indoor pots. He has a feature thanks to which he gained such popularity - good tolerance to bright sunlight;
4) Yaponikum-young shoots of a bush of this variety are painted in a copper, slightly pinkish color, according to the degree of maturity, the shade goes closer to green. It grows up to 45 centimeters, crown width up to 30 cm.
- grows preferentially among the tropical forests of America and the Antilles. The rhizome has a creeping property, but rather short in length. The leaf plates are cut three times, at the base they are formed in the form of a wedge. They expand towards the top edge. The foliage grows up to 50 centimeters wide in width, and the length reaches 70 cm.The cuttings on which the leaves are located do not exceed 30 cm.
The most popular varieties of this type:
1) Farleyens-twisting foliage is a spectacular sight;
2) Scutum Roseum - attention to this variety is due to the peculiarity of changing the color of the leaves, from green to pink tones, up to 30 centimeters in height.
- a plant that prefers a cooler area for wild growth, more precisely in the lowlands of the African mountains, along the edge of the snow cover. Creeping rhizome, foliage shaping, dissected, covered with a small bristle, the length of the leaf cover is up to 25 cm. The petioles on which the leaves are located are up to 35 cm.
-Another name for this species is wedge-shaped. The homeland of this fern is the subtropical Brazilian forest. The leaves are very gracefully bent, growing up to 45 centimeters, the width of which does not exceed 25 cm. The foliage is located on black petioles, has a rich green color and a very dissected form.
The most popular varieties of this type:
1) Grassilium, Micropinnulum-endowed with smallish, heavily dissected foliage, a feature of increased demand for moisture. It is recommended to cultivate only for florariums;
2) Fritz, Festum varieties, the most resistant to the manifestation of an unfavorable climate. Perfect for home cultivation.
- this species is used as an ampel decoration. The foliage of the bush can grow up to 60 cm and has good splendor. Each petiole is colored brown; offspring are located on the tops of the leaves. The species has a categorically negative attitude towards overdrying the soil.
-sort beautiful maidenhair is predominantly a tall bush in height, almost a meter, but at this height it has a fragile root system. The leaves are feathery, the petioles are black-violet. The leaf plates themselves have a dark green tone.
-view of the maidenhair charming
- originally from Nepal, but can also be found in Kashmir. The leaves are narrow and green in color, growing up to 0.2 meters. The slight sharpness of the leaf blades emphasizes the attractiveness of the bush. Under the influence of the lowered temperature, the foliage is colored in a light brown tone.
-the external resemblance to the maidenhair is beautiful, but the small difference lies in the shape, resembling a horseshoe. The homeland is the south of Brazil.
-view of the maidenhair transparent
- does not grow above 40 centimeters, the leaves are endowed with a feathery shape, the length of the leaves is up to 20 cm, the width is 3 cm, elongated, but thin petioles, only 20 cm.The leaf plates are painted in a green tone, resembling a wide oval.
- is in high demand among florists. The birthplace of the fern is South Asia and the Andes of South America. It is in the wild that the bushes are formed quite densely, the plant is very delicate, the difference from its relatives is in its rapid growth. Grows up to 50 centimeters. The leaf plates have a greenish tone, predominantly oval in shape, up to 30 cm long and no more than 15 millimeters wide. The petioles, on which the leaves are located, are elongated, up to 15 centimeters.
As a result of our conversation, we can emphasize the importance of fern varieties. As a decorative element, the Adiantum plant is popular with flower growers, and in terms of its usefulness, it is very widely used in folk medicine in more than one country. One more moment! Being in the same room with a fern, you can feel a unique freshness. The properties of the fern are able to relieve the nervous state. In general, the bush evokes a positive opinion from all sides. The most important thing is to properly care for the plant and follow all the recommendations.