Promenaea is not the most numerous genus that is directly related to the orchid family. The genus includes about fourteen species of very miniature, almost dwarf epiphytic plants, which are often found in nature. Basically, you can find a promenade in the tropical mountain forests of Central or Southern Brazil, since there the plant receives all the necessary substances and is in the most comfortable conditions for growth and development.
Promenya orchid: basic characteristics
The Promenaeum orchid as a species is very closely related to the genus called Zygopetalum. For this reason, he is so often exchanged and ranked among this genus. But at the same time, they are at least similar to each other, but the exchange orchid still has its own distinctive characteristics and features. And therefore, in this article we will try to talk about them in a little more detail.
This genus is characterized by the fact that the plants are quite compact, very small in size. The type of growth at the planting is sympoidal. The flower has a rhizome, which has the shape of a creeping and slightly deformed stem. And also on it there is a certain number of pseudobulbs, which are also very small in size. Their shape is ovoid, some pseudobulbs can be slightly flattened.
The leaves sit on fairly wide petioles, which are mainly located at the bottom, and they are covered with these very pseudobulbs. The leaves are colored either in a pale green tint, or in a pale green with a gray tint. Even in this case, the plant looks very interesting and attractive, and the leaf blades are not lost at all against the general background of planting.
Flowering at the promenade is long, it can be from three to four weeks. It so happens that a plant can bloom for two months. But here a lot will depend on varietal characteristics, as well as on how the gardener himself looked after the promenade, provided her with all the caring measures, followed agricultural techniques so that the plant felt as comfortable as possible.
In this article, we will take a closer look at how to properly care for your crop at home.
Caring for the promenade includes lighting and maintaining the temperature regime, soil mixture, watering, fertilizing, air humidity, breeding methods. We will also talk about how to deal with pests and diseases that can be dangerous for this plant.
In addition, information about the most basic types of promenade will be interesting, since they differ from each other in a variety of properties and characteristics. And this should definitely be borne in mind, because in this case, any gardener will be able to pick up the plant that will meet his tastes and requirements, and which he will be able to safely care for.
Exchange orchid: plant care at home
Let's start with a description of plant care. In indoor conditions, such orchids can be grown by both experienced gardeners and those who do not have special skills and knowledge in growing plants. This is due to the fact that, in general, this flower is quite unpretentious, not capricious, and therefore it can sometimes withstand some flaws in the care of flower growers.
Let's start with how it should be illumination for this plant. Promenaea is a very light-loving crop that responds well to bright lighting.Moreover, it must necessarily be scattered, because direct sunlight can harm the planting. But in general, the plant will feel comfortable in moderate partial shade.
When flowers are placed in a room, it is better to put it on the sill of an east-facing window. If the grower exposes the plant on other windows, then the plant will need a little shading there so that the sun's rays are scattered. It is also worth taking care of the supplementary lighting of the plant if these are windows with north orientations. Phytolamps are perfect for illumination.
In particular, supplementary lighting will be relevant in the autumn and spring periods, when there may be very little sunlight. In general, throughout the year, daylight hours should be at least ten to twelve hours for the plant to develop safely.
Next, we will focus on temperature mode. Promenaea prefers relative coolness, and he also has a well-expressed state of rest, which is also worth paying attention to. In the warm season, the orchid grows well at temperatures from 16 to 22 degrees, but with the arrival of cold weather, the temperature should vary from 12 to 15 degrees.
In order for flower buds to be laid as successfully as possible, the flower needs a daily temperature difference. On average, it should be between five and ten degrees. In warm weather, from about mid-May to mid-September, it is best to transfer flowers to fresh air, to a garden or to a balcony, terrace or loggia.
At the same time, there should be no threat of frost at night, since the plant will definitely react to them in the most negative way. But on the other hand, in this way it will be easiest to ensure the daily temperature drop, which is so welcomed by the plant.
It is also important that the exchange orchid gets enough fresh air. It is thanks to this that the plant will feel much more comfortable, its immunity will be stronger, stress resistance will reach its maximum values.
Since, as we have already indicated earlier, these orchids are epiphytes, it is possible to grow them calmly on blocks. And also for this, the most common container for flowers, which is filled with a mixture of sphagnum and large pine bushes, may be suitable. It is worth taking these components in equal proportions so that the mixture is most suitable for planting exchanges. This mixture is used to fill plastic containers, the outer side of which can be slightly perforated. Perforation is necessary for the best ventilation of the root system. After all, this way the plant will feel much more comfortable, it will be able to grow and develop normally, and also demonstrate excellent growth.
Also, if we talk about the block, then you can use a piece of pine bark instead, which must necessarily be impressive in size so that the orchid has more space for growth. The root system of the plant is fixed on the surface, and a sphagnum cushion is also created to make the orchid feel attached. It will be better to cover the roots with moss on top, and this will not only fix the plant, but also reduce the risk that it will dry out very quickly.
Watered the orchid is exchanged only when the bark on which it is located dries out. For this, it is best to use only settled and very soft water, water from a filter is also suitable. It should be at room temperature, not higher than forty degrees, then the plant will not experience the shock of watering. How often watering is done will depend only on how environmental conditions develop.
If the room is cool, then the bark will dry out much more slowly, and watering will be carried out less often. But if the room is hot and dry, then the bark will dry out faster.Sometimes it is necessary to water the plant a little more often, here also a lot will also depend on the general state of the planting, on how it reacts to the surrounding conditions.
As for the watering method, experienced gardeners recommend using the immersion method. To do this, either a container with a plant, or a block must be lowered into a basin, which is pre-filled with water, and the plant must be kept for twenty minutes, after which the plant is taken out and sent to its usual place of growth.
If the exchange is grown on the block, then it is necessary to constantly maintain a certain level humidity air - as a rule, it is about 60% or more. If the gardener does not own an orchidarium, then in order to increase the air humidity to the required maximum, it is worth using a household steam generator or humidifier in the room. They place these technical devices close enough to the plant and constantly monitor how its general condition and external characteristics change.
If the orchid grows in a pot, then it can safely tolerate a possible decrease in air humidity, especially if it grows in room conditions. But in order for the plant to still feel comfortable, it is worth periodically moistening the leaves from a spray bottle, and for this they use slightly warm, settled soft water. Then the plant will thank the grower by becoming even more decorative, the external characteristics will become fresher and more attractive, in general, the flower will look like this at any time of the year.
Transplanted I will exchange the orchid only if there is such an urgent need. For example, a transplant is needed when a container or block for a plant becomes very cramped, and it has nowhere else to grow. Also, the substrate can periodically become salted or decomposed, which also suggests that it is necessary to transplant in the very near future. This procedure is prescribed at the time when the pseudobulbs begin to form their own root system. But if, nevertheless, there is no need for a transplant, then it is better not to touch the exchange once again, otherwise it may react to such an intervention not in the most positive way.
Feed the Promenaeus orchid is best during the period of its most intense and active growth, and do this once every two to three weeks, not more often. For this, a universal complex fertilizer is usually used, which is intended for feeding orchids. In this case, they do not take the entire part of the fertilizer, which is indicated in the instructions, but only a third of it.
Top dressing can also be alternated - to carry them out both by root and foliar methods. In this case, the leaves are sprayed with water, in which a small amount of fertilizer is preliminarily dissolved. Mineral substances can be absorbed by the plant much faster through leaf plates and stems, which means that the effect of their introduction will not be long in coming.
This type of orchid, unlike other species, has not one dormant period, but two. The first period begins in winter, just after the plant gives new, young shoots, and also dormancy occurs when the new pseudobulbs begin to round slightly. At this time, the plant is best placed in a cooler room, and watering should be sparse, but sometimes the flower will respond perfectly to periodic spraying, since almost no crop can be completely without moisture.
The dormant period is marked by the appearance of peduncles. From now on, the flower can be given exactly the same care as in the summer. After the flowering of the promenade is completed, then the second period of dormancy begins. During the second period of dormancy, the plant should properly rest and gain strength for a new stage of development.At this time, he is looked after in the same way as in winter, and the second rest period is very short - it lasts up to three weeks, no longer.
Florists can face a variety of situations. For example, it happens that a flower has not yet had time to bloom completely, but young pseudobulbs are already forming on it. In this case, it is highly likely that the plant will not have a second dormant period.
If you do not organize a second period of dormancy for several years, do it continuously, then this can lead to the fact that new shoots from year to year will become weak, flowering will cease to be bright and abundant. And then flowering may stop altogether, which in general will indicate that the plant has lost its decorative effect.
So it is worthwhile to treat the flower very carefully here, to regulate its shoot and flowering activity, and only then it will be possible to preserve excellent decorative abilities for many years.
How to propagate exchange
Let's talk a little about the ways of promenade reproduction. In indoor conditions, the plant can be propagated using division bush. The gardener should remember that on each plot there should be at least three adult pseudobulbs, which should already have developed, albeit small, but roots.
In rare cases, on the upper part of a mature pseudobulde, baby, which can also be further neatly separated from the mother bush and planted separately. In an industrial setting, in order to propagate the promenade, gardeners use seminal way. Also works great and meristemic breeding method, that is, cloning. But such methods are completely unsuitable for indoor and backyard reproduction of exchanges, since their number is very small.
What hurts the exchange, plant pests
Diseases and pests are an important aspect that also needs to be analyzed. Most often, spider mites begin to multiply on the leaves. If the gardener finds this pest on his orchid, then the flower should be immediately sent under a warm shower. The water temperature during the shower should be no more than 45 degrees. In this case, the leaves are washed very carefully to wash off any traces of this pest.
The exchange orchid differs in that it is very resistant to disease. But if suddenly the gardener will save time on leaving and neglect the rules of agricultural technology, then this will certainly lead to the fact that the plant will turn yellow and the leaves will fall off, and the tips will generally turn black, which will just signal that something is happening to the plant not that, and that it needs additional support from the grower.
Certain circumstances can lead to such consequences, and now we will list them:
- high air temperature, which leads to the drying of the foliage;
- high air humidity, which provokes putrefactive formations and disturbances in the state of planting;
- overdrying, which can be repeated from time to time, which will also cause a negative reaction in the plant;
- the substrate can become saline and decompose, and this indicates that it needs updating. Otherwise, the plant will experience discomfort;
- lighting can be too scarce or too much. If you do not follow that line and the norm, then this will lead to very negative consequences;
- water used for irrigation is very hard, very cold or too hot. This immediately affects the general condition of the plant and its external characteristics.
The main types of promenade
Indoors, at home, a gardener can grow a very large number of types of promenades. All of them, as a rule, differ from each other in the color of the flowers, as well as in the shape of the corolla.We will give characteristics to some types of promenade, so that it is more clear how they differ from each other, what are their characteristics, and what they need in order to maximize their decorativeness and attractiveness.
Swap Sunlight - this is the first type of orchid that we will consider in this article. This species is considered one of the most common among Russian gardeners and florists.
The pseudobulbs at the promenade of the sunlight are oval in shape, have four edges, they can reach two centimeters in height, but one and a half in width. Sepals and petals are painted in a yellow shade, on the petals there is a very large number of decorative burgundy blotches, which gives the Sunlight Promenade orchid a special appearance and exoticism.
Staple-shaped exchange - this flower has an incredibly bright and spectacular appearance. The inner surface of the lip and the column is painted in a purple hue, but along the edges you can see delicate white blotches that seem to dilute the overall attractive composition.
Petals and sepals are wide enough, have a bright yellow color. On their surface there are a large number of uneven transverse burgundy stripes. This also makes the plant very interesting in terms of decorativeness and color.
This variety is also quite popular with flower growers, since it is not particularly whimsical. Even completely inexperienced flower growers who still want to get an excellent and incredibly attractive result can handle dry land and cultivation.
Exchanging the micropter - this species is considered the smallest among all other types of orchids. It also stands out not only for its small size, but also for the fact that the rim has a rather atypical shape. The length of the peduncles can range from four to five centimeters, while the diameter of the flower itself is only four centimeters.
Sepals and petals are colored lemon-yellow, and burgundy spots can be seen on the lip. Also on the sides there may be strokes of the same deep burgundy color, which makes this plant even more distinguishable from many other plantings.
The plant is also not very whimsical. It can safely endure both dry periods and frosts, the main thing is to observe the most elementary rules of agricultural technology. But even if the grower does not have much experience in growing orchids, then this species generally forgives him any mistakes. The main thing is to improve in this process, not to run your landings too much. Otherwise, there is a great risk that the plant will begin to wilt, get sick, and the gardener will not even notice this in time.
Freckled exchange - this plant also has its own characteristics in external characteristics. Sepals are colored yellow, while they differ in that their shape is not always correct.
On the surface of the sepals, there is a small number of burgundy dots, which are miniature in size. On the surface of the flower lip itself, there are many freckle spots, which just distinguish this planting from many others, since freckles look very elegant and decorative. The spots at the very base of the lip can get larger, but the inside of the column has a pure burgundy color.
Taken together, the flower looks very harmonious and attractive, so that it can very often be seen in indoor conditions. In addition, it is just as unpretentious, it is enough to follow the most standard caring procedures and rules of agricultural technology in order to increase the decorative effect of this planting.
Exchanging paranansis - this species stands out among all the others for its short peduncles - their length barely reaches 3.5 centimeters.But at the same time, the flowers in diameter are completely standard - about 4.5 centimeters. Sepals are very long, their tips may be slightly pointed, petals are ovoid, slightly elongated. At the same time, small decorative spots can be seen on the petals. But on the lip, the spots become not only larger, but their number can also increase.
In general, this species also does not differ in particular whimsicality, the plant feels great in any conditions. The main thing is still to try to create a favorable microclimate, and then decorativeness will not be long in coming.
In principle, almost all types of interchange are found in home floriculture. They take root well, they can be propagated, and the new seed will retain the maximum characteristics of the mother plant. Much depends, of course, on the grower himself, on his care and desire to get exceptionally decorative, healthy and attractive plantings.