Hybrid cherry and sweet cherry "Excellent Venyaminova"
Today, thanks to the works of breeders, there are a large number of hybrid varieties of fruit and berry crops. Crossing is carried out not only between varieties of the same species, but also between plants of different species and subgenera of the same genus. The result of this crossing was the emergence of a hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry - "Excellent Venyaminov". Cherry is a subgenus of plants belonging to the genus Plum, and sweet cherry is one of the species of the same genus. This article will focus on the distinctive features of the "Excellent Venyaminova" hybrid, its strengths and weaknesses.
Origin of the hybrid
A hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry "Excellent Venyaminova" appeared thanks to the activities of employees of two Soviet scientific institutions - the All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture named after V.I. VI Michurin and the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding of Fruit Crops. The creators of the new variety, A.N. Venyaminov. and Kolesnikova A.F., a selection of seedlings obtained by free pollination of an old German cherry variety "Drogana Zheltaya" was made. The selected seedlings were allocated to a new variety, which received the name of one of its authors. In 1985, "Excellent Venyaminova" entered state grade trials.
"Excellent Venyaminova" - description and characteristics
Description of the plant
Trees of the "Excellent Venyaminova" variety are classified as tall because they can grow up to 5 m. The crown is formed from raised, not too branched branches and shoots and has a reverse pyramidal shape. The stem of the plant and its skeletal branches are covered with peeling brown bark. Medium-sized straight shoots are olive brown in color. The conical buds forming on them are strongly deviated, reaching 4 mm in length. Dark green leafy plates are ovoid with a sharp top and base. The edges of the leaves have serrated contours of the serrate-crenate type. Flat sheet plates have a matte smooth surface with practically no glands, which are concentrated in a small amount at the base. The length of the petiole is about 2 cm, the width is no more than 0.1 mm. It is characterized by the presence of pigmentation on the surface.
During the flowering period, branches of trees of the "Excellent Venyaminova" variety are covered with white inflorescences, each consisting of 4 flowers. The diameter of the opened corolla of the flower is about 2.4 cm. The pistil, as a rule, is located below the anther, its length does not exceed 8 mm, while the length of the stamens is 8.5 mm. The bell-shaped calyx consists of slightly serrated sepals. The flowering period of "Excellent Venyaminov" begins early enough - in the second decade of May.
Description of fruits
The main fruit formations of the "Excellent Venyaminova" variety are bouquet twigs and last year's shoots. The weight of the fruits of this hybrid variety varies between 5.5 and 7 g. They have a characteristic flat shape: the height is slightly more than 2 cm, the width and thickness are about 3 cm. The presence of a shallow funnel and a rounded top is also typical. The skin of the fruit of "Excellent Venyaminov" is colored red, and the fibrous part is pink. The not too dense pulp has a melting consistency and is saturated with colorless juice. The chemical composition of the fibrous part of the fruit includes a lot of sugar (over 13%), acids (slightly less than 1%), dry matter (18.9%).The berries are attached by means of stalks about 4 cm long of medium thickness. The weight of the round seed is 0.42 g and makes up 6% of the total mass of the berry. It is cream colored, has a rounded top and bottom, and is easily removed from the pulp. The taste of the “Excellent Venyaminova” variety is classified as dessert and highly appreciated in comparison with other varieties of cherries.
"Excellent Venyaminova": features of fruiting, harvesting and storage of crops
The first fruiting of "Excellent Venyaminov" falls on the 4th year of growing the tree. This cherry variety is classified as mid-season - its fruits ripen from 8 to 12 July. On average, up to 10 tons of fruits are harvested from 1 hectare of this variety. The maximum recorded yield is 17 tons per hectare.
"Excellent Venyaminova" refers to the self-fertile varieties of cherry, therefore, it needs the presence of pollinating plants on the site, blooming with it at the same time. The best option for pollination of this variety is considered to be the Spanish cherry variety, which has been tested for centuries “Griot Ostheim"And the no less famous old Russian variety" Vladimirskaya ". Compliance with the necessary agrotechnical recommendations allows you to get a bountiful harvest of fruits annually and extend the productive period of the tree's life.
"Excellent Venyaminova": pros and cons
Cherry variety "Excellent Venyaminova" is known not only for the high taste of its fruits, but also for the ability to tolerate winter frosts well. The high winter hardiness of trees of this variety is combined with resistance to such a common disease among stone fruit crops as coccomycosis.
However, not all parts of the “Excellent Venyaminova” variety show a high degree of winter hardiness. Flower buds do not tolerate frost well and may die as a result of exposure. Another disadvantage of this variety is the rather high growth of trees. This quality makes them unsuitable for growing in small areas and significantly complicates their care and harvesting.
The hybrid variety "Excellent Venyaminova" demonstrates such distinctive features as high palatability of fruits, good tolerance of winter frosts by wood, as well as immunity to some fungal diseases. Thanks to these advantages, the domestic hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry is popular among gardeners. The main obstacle to its cultivation is the high growth of trees of this variety - for this reason, "Excellent Venyaminova" is only suitable for owners of large areas and for large horticultural farms.