Transplanting seedlings into open ground - 9 rules for success
To grow a culture through seedlings - it takes a lot of effort and time, and a lot of knowledge. The whole process can take from a month to two. Transplanting seedlings that were grown on a windowsill is very painful for an immature plant. And often, all our work can perish. But in order for the risks to be minimal, it is enough to listen to the recommendations of experienced gardeners. And follow the nine rules for a successful open field transplant
Hardening of seedlings is a mandatory procedure
It is necessary to prepare seedlings for transplanting into open ground in advance. The important thing is that if you neglect this procedure, our sprouts will stop their development for 6 - 8 days. Metabolic processes are reduced and most of the seedlings may die.
14 days before planting, you need to start hardening our seedlings for transplanting into open ground. A balcony is well suited for this. Hardening should take place gradually, so for now, the culture is displayed on the balcony only for the night. For tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, the temperature at night should be at least + 10 ... + 13 degrees, since this culture is thermophilic. For vegetables that are more resistant to cold, the temperature can be at around + 5 ... + 7 degrees. 4 days before planting the plants in the ground, the seedlings should be left not only overnight, but also outdoors for the whole day. Whether it's a balcony or a garden.
Be sure to follow the forecast so that in the event of a sharp cold snap, you can bring the plants into the house. Often you do not need to water the seedlings. When hardening seedlings, the root system is more hardy and adapts to a new place quickly enough. But remember that you cannot harden the seedlings for more than four weeks.
Otherwise, growth may stop, and you will not get a harvest from this seedling.
Transplanting seedlings into open ground: optimal timing and planting time
Transplanting seedlings into open ground: photo
Most of the summer residents are planning to plant seedlings in May. But this month the weather is not always stable. And transplanting seedlings into open ground can adversely affect seedlings.
Be sure to check the forecast before you land. Otherwise, unexpected showers and strong winds can ruin everything that was spent so much time and effort.
It is best to replant seedlings when it is cloudy, but not rainy. If there are hot sunny days ahead, then wait for the evening and make the landing. Otherwise, the sun's rays will burn many leaves. And while you are waiting for the sun to set, you can safely take on the preparation of the beds. Weed, removing all the roots of the herbs, loosen the soil and, if fertilizer is needed, add to the dug holes.
Remember that tomatoes are ready for planting if they have 7 to 8 leaves.
The age of the seedlings is important!
Transplanting seedlings into open ground in early May may be unfavorable because the plants are not mature enough for planting. When planting in the ground, it is imperative to take into account the age of the seedlings.
In order for the painful period for the plant to pass as quickly as possible, it is necessary to transplant the crops at a time favorable for them. As a rule, the seedlings that have been on the windowsill for a long time have already outgrown.Its adaptation when transplanted into the ground can be delayed. But young seedlings should not be planted early, otherwise they will not be able to survive the scorching sun and rains.
Thanks to the many years of experience of summer residents, a list of terms for transplanting seedlings into the ground was compiled.
Seedling age tomato for transplanting into open ground: early ripening - 45-55 days, mid-ripening - 60-65 days, late-ripening - 75-80 days. At about this age, the seedlings have 7-8 true leaves, which will mean that the tomatoes are ready for planting in the ground.
Seedling age sweet pepper for disembarkation - 55-70 days. At this age, the plant has 7-8 true leaves and a sufficient number of buds. In order for the crop to be rich, be sure to remove the first flower.
Pumpkin crops such as: zucchini, pumpkin, very poorly tolerate planting in the ground. But most of the northern regions, due to the cold climate, have to resort to seedlings of these crops. Since this is the only way to grow these vegetables.
If the age of pumpkin seedlings is 25-30 days, and there are at least 3 real leaves, then it will definitely take root. If the seedlings are much older, they die in 70% of cases.
For watermelons the timing of disembarkation of seedlings is 35-40 days, if there are 3-4 true leaves. Since this culture is southern, it takes a long time to mature. Therefore, it is grown mainly by seedlings.
Timing cabbage for planting seedlings, as well as tomatoes, depends on the variety: white and red - 55-65 days, mid-ripening white - 40-55 days, late-ripening white - 35-50 days, broccoli - 35-50 days, Brussels and colored - 45-55 days.
Seedling age eggplant for transfer to a garden bed or greenhouse - at least 60-85 days, and in the presence of 7-8 true leaves. During this time, the seedlings will get stronger, a stable root system will develop.
Seedling cucumbers It is planted in open ground, depending on the variety: early - 35-55 days, medium - 55-60 days, late - 65 or more days.
The subtleties of transplanting seedlings into open ground
As a rule, before the seedlings are planted in the ground, she will have a difficult trip to the summer cottage. And quite often, such transportation does not reflect very well on our plants.
One of the crops that is difficult to transport is tomatoes. Seedlings tend to outgrow and long stems are difficult not to break, even when handled very carefully. The road is often uneven, due to bumps and bumps, tomato stalks can break. And if you have all the pots with seedlings are pressed together, this does not guarantee successful transportation.
And that is why, to transport tomatoes, preferably in a large box. For this, a TV box is ideal. If there is no large capacity available for all our overgrown tomatoes. The best solution is a rake or a high peg. We put the peg in the pot in the center, and carefully tie all the tomato stems with a wide ribbon. Thus, the peg will support our seedlings, preventing them from bending over and breaking.
If there are not so many overgrown tomatoes, then horizontal transportation is suitable for them. This method of transportation is safe for seedlings and thus preserves the stems and leaves of our plants. Wise gardeners advise to wrap the seedlings along their entire length with paper or film.
If such transportation turned out to be sad for two or three seedlings, while breaking the stems. You shouldn't be upset. Our loss can be recovered. If the stalk of the seedlings has just bent over, then it can be safely tied to a peg and the plant will soon grow. If the stem is broken in half, then one of the parts can be planted in the ground, and it will quickly take root. But keep in mind that you will harvest later from such a bush.
Minimizing root injuries
Everyone, even novice gardeners, knows that if the root system of the seedlings is less injured, then it is more likely that the transplantation of seedlings into the ground will be painless and successful.
24 hours before transplanting seedlings into open ground, be sure to water the seedlings with warm water with the addition of a biostimulant. To gently remove the seedlings from the cup, turn the glass over and squeeze it from all sides by tapping on the bottom of the cup. And when an earthen lump falls on your palm, you can safely proceed to planting.Remember, you cannot break an earthen lump, otherwise you will injure the root system of the seedlings.
If your seedlings did not grow in separate cups, but in one box. Then you should take the container in which all the plants are located and fill it with warm water for 2 hours. As soon as all the soil is saturated, the root ball must be carefully divided. It is recommended to divide it into such parts so that each part can fit in your hand.
After you have divided the root ball into pieces. Each part must be lowered into a bowl of water. Let the seedlings stand a little and divide the woven roots calmly without effort. As a rule, in water they will disperse easily and without damage to the seedling.
Transplanting seedlings to a permanent place correctly
In order to make the seedlings strong, and so that they can easily survive the adaptation period, it is necessary a couple of days before transplanting the plants into the beds, feeding with substances that will saturate the root system of our seedlings.
It is best to use fertilizers with a complex of minerals, which necessarily include macronutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. It is important that it is not just a peat extract, but a complex containing not only organic but also mineral components. Instant forms ("Aquarin", "Kristallon") are best suited for this.
With such a top dressing, the seedlings after transplanting into open ground will quickly take root in a new place. Be sure to take into account the air voids that can form between the roots and the ground during planting. They shouldn't be. To do this, after planting the seedlings, nail the soil tightly around the stem with your palm.
The more the overgrown stem is covered with earth, the better for tomatoes. While for cucumbers and cabbage, the deepening of the seedlings will be comfortable by 1-2 cm.
For peppers and eggplants, the depth in which they were in their glasses on the windowsills will be optimal. In order for your seedlings not to die on the very first day, you need to water them with warm water after planting, and mulch. Otherwise, a crust will form, which will be the cause of the death of the seedlings. Since the soil, under the crust, will be hard to breathe. Straw or humus works well for mulching.
After transplanting seedlings into open ground: protecting from the sun
The first seedling that has already moved to the country and was safely transplanted to the beds needs protection from the sun. Since at home, she did not receive as much light as on the street in the open air. Therefore, temporary shading with a seedling would be a good option to preserve the seedlings.
Due to sunburn, the seedlings can not only weaken, but also die. It is easy to identify burns, they appear on the leaves in the form of white spots.
To shade our seedlings, you can build a canopy yourself. A nonwoven fabric such as lutrasip works well for a canopy. The density of the material should be low - 15-30 g / m2. As soon as the seedlings take root and adapt, the shelter can be removed.
If the seedlings are overgrown
If the tomato seedlings are too overgrown, then the spiral planting method is practiced. In the hole, spirally, neatly lay the stem and fall asleep on top of the ground. In this form, the stem very quickly grows overgrown with roots and thereby strengthens its root system, while nourishing the entire plant.
You can plant overgrown seedlings in another way. This method is suitable not only for tomatoes, but also for many crops. The overgrown seedling is buried in the hole with the crown to the north at an angle of 45 degrees, so the plant will reach for the sun and will soon straighten.
How do you know that the seedlings have taken root?
At the first time after planting, the growth of the seedling stops, since it spends all its strength on adapting to its new environment. As soon as you notice new leaves on the plant, which are significantly different from the previous leaves, then the adaptation was successful and the plant took root.