Daurian juniper (juniperus davurica or) stone heather is considered an evergreen plant that belongs to Cypress, in natural conditions they grow on mountain slopes, near seas and rivers. In our country, this juniper can be found in the Far East, in Yakutia, in the Amur Region and in Transbaikalia. We will introduce you to the description of the variety, the rules for planting seedlings, with the characteristic features of caring for plants, so be sure to read our article and you will learn a lot about this amazing variety.
Juniper Daursky: description of the variety
Juniper Daursky: photo
This juniper is considered a low-growing shrub, its branches spread over the surface of the earth, so it does not grow more than 50 cm in height.The central stem of a juniper is hidden deep in the ground, so outwardly we can say that the shoots grow directly from the root. Moreover, each branch forms almost a separate plant, however, the root system of the juniper is common.
This variety also grows slowly, so this plant becomes an adult and mature bush only at the age of 5 years. The growth at this time is also insignificant, no more than 6 cm per year. The shrub usually grows no more than 50 cm in height, and a little more than 1 meter in width. The twigs form the crown like a round dome, so this juniper looks great in any garden. When the branches grow 7 cm in height, they begin to creep along the surface of the earth. When the shoots come into contact with the topsoil, they begin to take root. In the future, these layers can be separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a new location.
When the bush becomes completely adult, the growth will be even slower, no more than 1 cm per year. In one place, this culture can grow for more than 50 years, so this plant is rightfully considered a long-liver. This culture is unpretentious to care for, so this ornamental shrub is often used by designers to decorate the landscape. In addition, the bushes are very frost and heat resistant. Juniper can not be watered for a long time, plants also feel great in the shade. Juniper branches are thin, about 3 cm in diameter at the base. Towards the top, the shoots are tapering, the crown is prone to narrowing, it is usually gray, the needles are scaly, light green in summer, dark burgundy closer to winter. At the tops of the branches, the needles grow in the shape of a rhombus, but closer to the base they gather in whorls in two pieces.
The juniper has berries that are quite round, dark gray in color, sometimes with a brown tint. On the surface of the bumps, you can see a silvery coating. Juniper does not bear fruit every year, and usually few ovaries are formed. This culture also produces seeds, in one berry usually no more than 4 pieces.
The root system of plants is well spreading and developed, so it grows intensively in the surrounding space. Often the Daurian juniper is used as a seasoning, its needles and cones are added to fish dishes. As you know, juniper has a great effect on the surrounding atmosphere, thanks to essential oils, the twigs smell very nice, so pine needles are often added to alcoholic drinks for a special aroma. Juniper is also effectively used in cosmetology.
Designers love this plant very much, this frost-resistant bush practically does not need to be looked after, therefore, having planted it on your site, you can forget about leaving once and for all. But the growing branches very often resemble a lawn, so if you wish, you can have your own evergreen natural carpet in your country house. Juniper fits perfectly into the surrounding space. He has wonderful decorative species, needles are bright green, and burgundy in autumn.
In addition, due to the fact that the plant grows slowly, the bush does not need to be shaped and cut. Often this culture is used for landscaping flower beds and personal plots. It can be planted next to office buildings, in park areas. Designers often create real alpine slides from this variety of juniper, as its shoots spread beautifully along the ground, and if you plant a juniper on a slope, it will descend in a beautiful green cascade. The shrub is often planted near large stones, on the banks of water bodies, as well as next to other decorative and flowering crops. You can create a real green hedge from this shrub. Juniper also looks great in pots.
About varieties of Daurian juniper
Juniper has two main varieties. These types differ in color and shape of the needles. They are much less common in the wild than the traditional type of juniper, however, these varieties are often used to decorate sites.
- The first variety is Daurian juniper Leningrad leningrad
This is a completely dwarf shrub, because it is lower than the Daurian one. Its branches settle on the surface of the earth, and reach 2 meters in length. His crown is dense, shoots usually completely sink to the surface of the soil. Where the twigs touch the ground, the roots begin to form in the juniper. His needles are quite small, and the needles are very thick. The color is traditional, and the needles are rather prickly. This juniper can grow on a variety of soil types. Its growth is also small, usually from 5 to 7 centimeters per year. Moreover, over the years, the growing season slows down even more. With the help of Daurian juniper Leningrad, you can arrange a border near the road, as well as plant it in various group compositions. He loves moist soil as well as open areas.
- The second type of Daurian juniper - expansa variegata... It is also an ornamental shrub, but its branches are straighter, they intertwine very tightly, so it is almost impossible to separate them. The height of this shrub is also small, but the length of the shoots is slightly longer than that of the Daurian juniper Leningrad, more than 2 m. Its needles are two-colored, the needles are blue and cream. Essential oils in needles are contained in large quantities, therefore this juniper effectively destroys all pathogenic microorganisms that are in the air within a radius of several meters. It is also unpretentious, frost-resistant. It takes root on different types of soils. It is often planted in parks, sanitary zones, as well as in flower beds and personal plots. Juniper is beautifully located near various buildings, enriching the air with essential oils.
Planting Daurian juniper
It is best to plant a juniper on a southern slope; this plant feels great in open areas or in partial shade. If you plant a tree in a completely darkened area, it can stretch out and chop the needles. Moisture is well preserved under this dwarf bush, so there is no need to water the juniper intensively. It is best to plant this crop on neutral or slightly alkaline soil. It is best to choose a well-drained, loose area. If you plant a juniper near a fruit tree, the parasite of rust may be the parasite of needles. Juniper is propagated in different ways.
You can easily prepare the planting material yourself, so if a juniper bush is already growing on your site, then it is easy and simple to propagate the plant, usually planting work is carried out either in spring or in autumn. Do this before frost. If you buy seedlings from the nursery, then carefully examine the root, it should be free of defects and traces of drying out. The needles on the branches should also be dense. If you are going to transplant the bush to another site, then it is advisable to first raise the branches and collect them in a bunch, fix them with a rope and cover them with fabric. This is necessary so that the shoots are not damaged during transportation. It is necessary to dig in the bush, stepping back from the plant about 35 cm. It is necessary to deepen at least 30 cm. It is advisable to remove the bush together with the earth lump. Then it is best to put it on a piece of burlap, remove excess soil and transfer it to a new habitat.
The site should also be prepared there. For this, it is advisable to dig up the soil, remove all weeds. The planting hole should be at least 60 centimeters deep, remember that it should also be wider than the root system of the seedling. Peat and sand are usually placed there, a drainage layer is lined on one. For this, expanded clay or large crushed stone is often used. Before planting, the root system is placed in a growth stimulator for a couple of hours. In the soil, as you remember, it is advisable to add peat and sand, and you can also sprinkle a little lime. Juniper loves alkali.
The seedling should be installed in the center, and then cover the free space with earth, the root area will need to be well compacted and watered. After that, the crown can be freed from the fabric, and the branches can be evenly identified along the surface. Planting junipers should not be very close to other plants, keep some distance.
Juniper Daursky: variety care
As you remember, this culture is unpretentious, so it does not require special attention, however, certain rules should still be followed. Form a crown, remove weeds and water the plant in time. This culture is not demanding for watering, so you can moisten the soil every other day, and it is best to do this in the evening. But this applies only to young plants, an adult juniper is practically not needed for watering. Since under a continuous carpet of needles, moisture persists for a long time, even in dry summers. But young seedlings should be watered within 2 months.
It is usually recommended to feed the crop in the first two years; in early spring, fertilizer is usually not applied under adult bushes. It is advisable to mulch the trunks after plant transplantation. To do this, use tree bark, sawdust, dry grass. Moreover, the mulch should be renewed every year. And they usually do it in the fall. Around the soil must be loosened in time, and weeds must be removed. But all this should be done only around young seedlings; adult bushes do not need weeding. Their shoots grow so intensively that weeds simply do not grow, and the mulch perfectly retains moisture, and also passes air well.
Dahurian juniper should be pruned in the spring, for this it is recommended to remove diseased and dry branches in time. If the wintering was successful, then the plants should not be cut off; designers are usually engaged in the formation of the bush in order to create bizarre sculptures from the crown of the culture. But remember that juniper branches grow extremely slowly, so don't prune them too much. Once a year it will be enough to form the crown of the bush.
Moisten the soil abundantly before wintering. In addition to the root, add a couple of centimeters of mulch. But just before the arrival of winter, young bushes have branches usually collected in a bunch and fixed. This should be done so that they do not break under the weight of the snow.Shelters are also erected over young plants. For this, spruce branches are often used, another covering material. In winter, don't forget to throw snow on the bushes. If we talk about adult bushes, then it should be noted: they should not be covered, they winter well without artificial structures.
About the reproduction of juniper
Since the Daurian juniper usually spreads over the surface of the earth, it can be effectively propagated by layering for this, you will need to dig in a young two-year-old shoot, cover it with loose soil on top. After a while, the branch will have additional roots, but after a year, the shoot can be separated from the mother bush and planted in a new place.
You can also use cuttings, for this you will need to separate 15-20 centimeter shoots from three-year shoots. After that, they are placed in moistened soil and are waiting for the appearance of roots. With the help of grafting, the Daurian juniper is rarely propagated, since this material does not take root well on other stamps. Seed propagation is considered the most time-consuming process, so gardeners usually choose either cuttings or cuttings.
About diseases and pests
It is no secret that Daurian juniper secretes substances that garden pests do not like, therefore insects practically do not parasitize on needles. However, sometimes aphids, scale insects, spider mites and sawflies settle on junipers. In order to get rid of these pests, gardeners remove insect larvae, collect pests by hand, treat bushes with insecticides, as well as colloidal sulfur.
If necessary, you can always visit a specialized store and find the necessary drug. As you remember, if fruit trees grow next to the juniper, then the needles can be affected by rust. Therefore, choose your neighbors correctly, fungal infections are also not needed for juniper.
Daursky juniper is considered an unusually beautiful ornamental shrub. The culture is quite frost-resistant, and unpretentious in care. Junipers can be planted on different types of soil, they do well without watering, and they feel good in the shade. The soil is intensively covered with shrubs, it looks great on any personal plot, in a recreation area or in a city park. In addition, the air around the juniper is filled with pleasant essential oils, it becomes cleaner and more transparent. Therefore, the juniper is not only a decorative, beautiful shrub, but also a real healer. Be sure to plant it on your site, and it will delight you.