Copper sulfate for tomatoes, application
Natural vegetables and fruits from your city are the dream of every gardener. However, plants sometimes need to be treated with stronger agents than those prepared according to folk recipes. Especially when it comes to saving the entire crop from an epidemic, from pests. Currently, there is a wide variety of chemicals produced for various purposes. A large number of these funds contain copper in their base. About the cases in which copper sulfate is used for tomatoes and how to use it correctly will be discussed further.
Late blight, unfortunately, is a very common disease among tomatoes grown both in the greenhouse and in the open field. In a greenhouse, plants tend to get sick more often. Because it is difficult to control excessive humidity here, which is what late blight loves so much. Experienced gardeners most often resort to the method of processing plants against this disease with copper sulfate.
Copper sulfate concept
Copper sulfate for tomatoes is an inorganic substance, the chemical term for which is copper sulfate. The substance itself is released in the form of blue crystals. When dissolved in clear water, they color it in a deep blue color.
This product is sold in specialized stores. Or in ordinary hardware stores. The drug is produced in both glass and plastic packaging. Weighing from 100 to 500 grams. The product should be stored strictly in a dark, dry place. Otherwise, it may lose its functionality.
Copper sulfate for tomatoes is very popular both in large agricultural enterprises and in private farms. And also in private territories. The drug is used both as a fertilizer for plants and for cultivating the land, the aboveground part of the plant. As well as various premises, against pathogens and other insect pests.
A solution of copper sulfate combines several functions at once. It can replace fungicides, insecticides at the same time. And also has antimicrobial action. In addition, the crystal solution is an excellent top dressing for better growth of bushes.
Such a trace element as copper is an active participant in all vital processes of the plant. With a deficiency of this substance, the plant becomes weak and lifeless. It is an easy catch, both for late blight and for other infections. A diseased plant will not produce tasty fruits. And it may even die.
A solution of this drug is used strictly if necessary, after assessing the composition of the soil and the plant itself. Often this substance is not enough if the soil is infertile, humus deficient, or too sandy. Tomatoes do not feel comfortable on such ground. Their appearance becomes lifeless. In addition, immunity against late blight and other diseases decreases. In this case, a solution of copper sulfate is applied directly to the soil in the fall for digging. The dosage here is no more than a gram of crystals per square meter of earth.
If the soil is fertile, rich in nutrients and has a sufficient layer of humus, blue crystals should be added no more often than once every five years. In order to destroy the spores of late blight pathogens.
Gardeners who carefully care for tomato ridges, take preventive measures in a timely manner and enrich the soil, rarely use copper sulfate for tomatoes. If you notice white spots on the tomato leaves, plus a weak stem growth or no plant development at all, then the tomato tops should be treated with a solution prepared at the rate of 1 gram of the drug per 1 bucket of water.
When using the drug solution as a fertilizer, the dosage should be strictly observed. Because excessive concentration will harm the plant. So, the foliage will turn black and fall off. The plants themselves can dry out. Either their growth and development will stop or slow down greatly. A weak concentration of vitriol will not bring the expected result.
Copper sulfate for tomatoes: method of application
Depending on how much copper sulfate you take, this will be the percentage of the prepared composition, which is then used depending on the purpose of processing. So, for the preparation of the basic composition, 100 grams of crystals are diluted in one liter of water. After the preparation is completely dissolved in water, the composition is diluted with more water in such an amount that the final volume is 10 liters. So you get a one percent solution of copper sulfate.
If there are 200 grams of dry matter per 10 liters of water, then you will get a two percent composition. Further in the same way. Experienced gardeners advise to strain the solution before use. Specifically for tomatoes, vegetable growers prepare a composition that has the popular name Bordeaux liquid. Next, we will talk about how to cook it.
It is optimal to use a plastic container for preparing the solution. First, it is necessary to dissolve 100 grams of copper sulfate in some warm water. Further, as the drug is completely dissolved, the volume is brought to five liters. Then, in another plastic container, about 200 grams of lime is diluted in five liters of water. The solution is well mixed. As a result, it then becomes white, like milk. The next step will be pouring a thin stream of copper sulfate solution into the lime solution. It is important not to confuse the composition that will be infused. After combining the two compounds, a mixture of a cloudy shade with precipitates is obtained.
An ordinary carnation is placed in this composition. And they keep him there for no more than three minutes. Next, the nail is removed and inspected for rust. If there are no brown spots, then the solution does not have increased acidity. This means that it is optimal for processing.
Now the ready-made solution can be used to treat plants against late blight or to feed them. This mixture will be called Bordeaux liquid. It does not take much time and effort to prepare the solution. However, it is necessary to apply the ready-made mixture immediately. Or after no more than 9 hours. Otherwise, the composition will lose its medicinal properties.
Once on the tops, the drug forms a film on the plant. It is she who protects against negative influences. After a while, this film will disappear. As well as the progressive spread of late blight.
Copper sulfate for tomatoes: processing instructions
Copper preparation is very effective against late blight. In addition to it, you can purchase other ready-made mixtures that contain copper. Now there is a wide variety of them on the shelves. For example, Tsineb or Bordeaux mixture.
Of course, copper is a harmful heavy metal. It is also very toxic to humans. However, the plant does not absorb it. Therefore, the fruits can be consumed without fear for their health.The only thing: the plucked fruits will need to be washed very thoroughly before use. Because when processing, drops of solution simply remain on the leaves and stems of the plant.
It is necessary to treat plants with preparations containing copper not only when you have already noticed signs of the disease. And also for the purpose of prevention, about three times for the entire season. Gardeners who are already convinced of the effective effect of the drug against diseases recommend using this remedy. Because it does not harm humans and plants.
Phytophthora spores spread very easily and quickly over large areas. So, the cause of the epidemic on the site can be a dispute that fell on the ground from shoes, from an animal. The wind also moves pathogens very easily in space. Therefore, there is no need to wait for the signs of disease in your plants.
Copper sulfate for tomatoes is used as a prophylaxis. If you suddenly noticed signs of a disease on a plant earlier, then you need to immediately start processing with the drug. Until late blight developed very strongly and did not spread to other bushes.
The first treatment will be during the period of growing seedlings. A few days before sowing tomatoes, it is necessary to process the container in which the seedlings will be grown, as well as the ground with a three percent composition of copper sulfate. This fertilizer will save future seedlings from late blight. And also from such a disease as black leg. The treatment is of a preventive nature. Do not neglect it and you will save defenseless seedlings from possible diseases.
Copper sulfate for tomato seedlings
The next time, when it is necessary to carry out the treatment with a copper preparation, it will be the moment of the plant picking. Because when two or three true leaves appear on tomato seedlings, the seedlings are transplanted into separate cups. Accordingly, new soil will be needed. If you bought new ready-made seedling cups and new packed soil in the store, then it is permissible not to carry out the processing. However, if you use last year's containers for planting seedlings, and also take soil from your garden or just from any piece of land, then there is a risk of bringing in the spores of the pathogen.
Therefore, about a day before the seedlings dive, new containers are treated again with a copper solution. Only now it is no longer three percent, but one percent. And then the tomato is transplanted. If the solution is more concentrated, then there is a possibility that the delicate young roots of the plant will be damaged. The tomato, of course, will not dry out. However, its growth will slow down until a new root system is formed.
Processing tomatoes before planting in the ground
The third treatment with a solution of copper sulfate is carried out before planting seedlings in open ground. Open ground is a space for reproduction and vital activity of any pathogens. Therefore, prevention is very important here. After all, a young immature plant, falling into open ground, is not at all ready for an attack by pests. And vulnerable to various diseases.
Before planting tomato seedlings in open ground, as a rule, it is recommended to process the planting site with a 1% solution of copper sulfate a day before. Pour approximately one liter of solution into each well. And also add compost or humus. Already in a day, you can plant tomatoes in the prepared holes. It is necessary to prepare a solution of the drug immediately before processing. Because the solution prepared in advance, as a rule, will lose its protective properties.
Next, you should process the tops of tomatoes. The optimal time for processing is during the formation of ovaries on the bush.It is believed that it was at this time that phytophthora spores especially actively begin to affect the plant. Therefore, in order to protect the plant and create a protective film, it is necessary to spray the bushes with Bordeaux liquid at a concentration of 0.1%. It is unnecessary to increase the dosage of the drug. Because there is a risk of burning the leaves or stems.
This is an unpleasant moment. Because the plant will begin to regain green mass. And, accordingly, all the forces of the bush will go to this work. The ovaries will stop their development at this time. Thus, all this will not have a very good effect on the tomato harvest.
Why treat greenhouses?
As described above, the preparation of copper sulfate effectively copes with phytophthora spores. And does not harm either humans or plants. In addition to the applied fertilizers, some copper is already contained in the soil. Therefore, there is no need to be afraid here. But nevertheless, when feeding the soil, you must act carefully. You should not use the drug more often than once every five years in the same place.
Late blight affects tomatoes, both in the open field and in greenhouses. Moreover, in a greenhouse, the likelihood of a disease is much higher than in an open field. Because the space is closed. Rain and wind do not fall into it. In addition, the frame of the greenhouse contains a lot of secluded places where spores of pathogens can hide. Phytophthora spores are very resistant to low temperatures. Therefore, it is difficult to destroy them without resorting to chemical attack.
Copper sulfate for tomatoes: greenhouse processing
After harvesting the tomatoes, you should start harvesting the greenhouse to prepare it for the next season. In the fall, it is necessary to remove the remnants of weeds, tops and other debris. Then wash the inside of the greenhouse completely with a brush and hot water. More detergent needs to be added. Thoroughly wash and clean the gaps between windows and joints. Because it is a favorite place for wintering disputes.
This treatment is carried out in the same way for any greenhouse, be it polycarbonate or window frames. This treatment cannot be carried out in greenhouses with an aluminum structure. Some summer residents use a sulfur stick to process the greenhouse. In this case, it is unacceptable to visit the greenhouse for three days.
Next, you need to steam the greenhouse. This can be done in a variety of ways. Either treat the greenhouse with boiling water from a spray bottle, or place boiling water tanks in it. In this case, the greenhouse should be closed. When the steam treatment is complete, you can start the greenhouse treatment with copper sulfate.
If you failed to prepare the greenhouse in the fall, it is permissible to carry out a similar procedure in the spring. About a month before the planned planting of crops.
It is imperative to treat the greenhouse with copper sulfate if the plants are sick. And also if pathogens remain on the walls and in the soil. The soil and premises are preliminarily treated with bleach. In a proportion of 600 grams of the drug per bucket of water. After that, the greenhouse is sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid with a two percent concentration. If the plants did not suffer from late blight during the season, I treat the greenhouse as a preventive measure.
Processing is carried out both in autumn and spring. It is important that the air temperature does not exceed 15 degrees. Because otherwise, the effect will not be the same.
A large number of bacteria and microorganisms overwinter in the ground, as well as larvae and spores of various insect pests. Therefore, it is logical to cultivate the soil in order to prevent plant diseases.
It is better to do this in the autumn. If the land contains a large number of pests, then they are treated with a 40% formalin solution. You should refrain from visiting the greenhouse for three days.And then, as it should, ventilate the room.
If you add calcium hydroxide to the preparation of copper sulfate, then you can get rid of not only late blight. And also to prevent diseases such as powdery mildew, bacteriosis, spotting.
This solution can also be used in open field beds. This applies not only to tomatoes, but also to other crops.
Personal safety measures
Copper sulfate is still a chemical. Therefore, here you should observe safety measures during processing.
- Any non-metallic container should be used to dilute the drug.
- The drug must be prepared immediately before use. Because over time, its effectiveness will decrease. And after a day, the solution will become completely unusable.
- When treating plants, soil or greenhouses, keep animals away from the treatment area.
- When carrying out the processing procedure, it is better to use special sprayers.
- Wear protective clothing, gloves, respirator and goggles during handling. And after the procedure, change clothes and take a shower.
- It is necessary to store the drug in a place protected from children, animals, far from food.
To grow a large crop of tomatoes both in the greenhouse and in the open field, it is necessary to take care of the plant. Care is not only about watering, feeding and other important points. And it is also necessary to protect the plant from such a common disease as late blight.
A very popular and effective remedy is a solution of copper sulfate. Processing tomatoes with this drug will save plants from the appearance of late blight. It will also save you from other fungal diseases. You just need to be careful and the dosage rules of the drug. Because this is a strong chemical agent, which, if the concentration is incorrect, can not only not help, but also cause significant harm to the garden.