Perennial Lychnis (Lychnis) belongs to the Clove family, but in some cases the genus belongs to the Smolevka genus. The scientific substantiation of the name - "lyhnis" in translation from the Greek language means "lamp". There is a version that this is because the flowers of the plant have a very bright color or because in ancient times the leaves of one of the varieties were used as a wick. This culture is mentioned in the writings of Theophrastus. Vegetation has been cultivated since the last years of the sixteenth century. Various sources say that 20-50 species are included in this genus; they are found wild in the northern hemisphere. Florists grow only 15 varieties of this crop.
Lychnis description and characteristics
Lychnis is a perennial herbaceous vegetation with a rhizome. It can grow up to forty-one hundred cm. The surface of the stems has hairs, the stem is round in diameter. The leaves are pointed, lanceolate, in the form of an egg, cover the stems to a medium extent, their base is heart-shaped, the outer and inner sides are rough. The flowers of both sexes are 20 mm in cross section, the petals are of two lobes, their color can be pink, white, bright red, pale yellow or bright orange. Inflorescences - head, terminal scutellum. The fruit is a multi-root, with grains in the form of buds, painted in a dark brown color, in cross-section making up twenty mm, the germination of seeds lasts for three to four years. This perennial plant has been grown on one site for approximately five years.
Lychnis growing by seeds
Optimal planting time.
The culture is simply propagated by seed. The seeds are sown under the open sky before the winter season or in the first days of spring. The first time the bush will begin to bloom only next year, it does not depend on the sowing time. In very rare cases, when sowing before the winter season, in good weather, lychnis may begin to bloom in summer, but not completely.
If you grow a flower by seedling method, then flowering will be already in the current year. Before sowing seeds for seedlings on March days, they undergo a stratification process, for this purpose the seeds are placed in a refrigerator and lie there for a half-month or a month. Landings are retracted in warmth (temperature regime within 18-20 degrees). The first shoots will appear a few weeks after sowing. Seedlings are planted in unprotected soil at the end of May, in advance it goes through a hardening process for two weeks. If a decision is made to sow directly into unprotected soil, then this is done in April-May days.
Planting in unprotected soil.
The plant is not particularly whimsical to growing conditions. It is planted in a sunny place with fertile, well-drained and moderately moist soil. Likhnis "Crowned" grows well in the shade. Before sowing the grains, river sand (bucket), potassium magnesium (40 g), superphosphate (50 g) are introduced into the soil, the dosage is calculated for one square of the planting site. If the soil is clay, then compost fertilizer or humus is added there. Before sowing, lime is added to the soil if it has a strong acidity level. Before sowing, the grains are kept on the refrigerator shelf for four weeks, so they are stratified. In the furrows, ready-made grains are sown in advance, then they are sealed. The plantings require good watering. For the simultaneous appearance of seedlings, temperature conditions must be observed in the range of approximately 18-20 degrees. The first shoots will appear after 2.5-3.5 weeks.
Lychnis, which is grown in the garden, must be provided with regular watering, especially in extreme heat. After watering, the surface soil layer must be loosened regularly, and all weeds must be removed at the same time. Consider the fact that this plant can easily be drowned out by weeds, so only you are responsible for this flower and for its future. For a longer flowering, inflorescences that have begun to wither are removed in time, and all the vegetation is pulled out, trying to get close to the site of our flower.
During the growing season, fertilizing is applied only 2-3 times during the season. If the seedlings have grown slightly and got stronger, then they can be fed with a complex of minerals. In the future, they feed this way once every fifteen to twenty days.
Diseases and harmful insects.
With excessively abundant and frequent watering, the plant can get sick with rust, root rot, and leaf spot. For prevention purposes, a watering schedule is being developed that would take into account the regional weather, in order to avoid stagnation of water in the roots. If you notice the first signs of a fungus, then the infected flower is sprayed with a fungicide.
When leaf rollers or aphids appear on the bush, they are destroyed with an infusion of tomato tops or tobacco, soap is poured into it, which was previously crushed on a grater. With a large number of pests, they get rid of them by treating the bush with an insecticide.
It is not necessary to cover the culture for the winter season, because it is highly frost-resistant. But when growing varieties with double flowers, bushes for the winter season need shelter without fail. After the leaves and shoots begin to turn yellow and wither, they are cut off to the end. Terry plants after pruning are mulched with a layer of foliage, peat or dry soil.
Varieties and varieties cultivated by flower growers.
Lychnis "Arkright" (Lychnis arkwrightii).
The bush is compact, grows up to 36-41 cm, the coloring of shoots and narrow leaves is burgundy. The flower has few inflorescences or single flowers of orange color, they are about 30 mm in diameter, blooming occurs at the ends of the shoots at the end of June, the plant continues to bloom until the very height of the August days. The most popular variety is Vesuvius. It has bright green leaves in the form of a heart, the inflorescences are more splendid than the main variety, and include red-orange flowers.
Lychnis "Alpine" (Lychnis alpina, Viscaria alpine, Steris alpine).
Growing wild, this species is found in the Scandinavian tundra and forest-tundra zone, in the Greenland and North American east, as well as in European territory (mountain tundra and alpine belts). A perennial flower grows up to ten to twenty cm. It has basal leaf rosettes and several shoots bearing leaves of a linear type, which are located opposite. Inflorescence - panicle, contains flowers of pink-red or crimson color. The most popular variety "Lara" - the bush produces a large number of light pink flowers.
Lychnis "Viscaria" (Viscaria vulgaris, Lychnis viscaria, Silene viscaria).
The wild plant is found in the Crimean, Central European, Ciscaucasian territories, as well as in the southwestern Siberian part. Shoots grow up to 41-101 cm. Their top is sticky, for this reason this variety is referred to as tar. Flowers are white or crimson, five to seven flowers are whorls, forming a paniculate inflorescence. Popular varieties: "Rosetta": terry flowers, bright crimson; "Likhnis terry flora captive": the flower grows up to 31 cm; basal leaves are not wide, linear, dark green in color; inflorescences-tassels contain flowers of a terry structure, lilac colors, twenty to thirty mm in diameter.
Lychnis "Crowned" (Lychnis coronaria, Lychnis coriacea).
This herbaceous perennial plant grows up to forty to ninety cm. The inflorescence-tassel is loose, contains pink flowers, but there are bushes with white inflorescences. Popular varieties: Angels Blanche: dark pink, white or crimson flowers; "Mysterious Island": the middle of the flower is pink, the edges of the petals are bordered with white.
"Cuckoo adonis (Coronaria flos-cuculi), or" Cuckoo's color "(Lychnis flos-cuculi).
This variety can be found almost throughout the entire European territory. This delicate plant forms a loose turf, consisting of rosettes and shoots that branch at the top and grow up to one meter. The leaves are located opposite, they are not wide, when approaching the top of the shoot, their size decreases. Inflorescence - scutellum, contains large, but very thin pink flowers, 40 mm in diameter. The petals are divided into four lobules, each of them hanging and twisting. There are species with white flowers. Popular varieties: "Nana": the bush grows up to 16 cm; "Alba": white flowers; "Rosea captivity": flowers of a double structure, pink color.
Lychnis "Shining" (Lychnis fulgens).
The wild-growing variety can be found in the Chinese, Far Eastern, East Siberian and Japanese territories. Shoots are vertical, grow up to 40-60 cm. Leaves are greenish in color, oblong, egg-shaped or lanceolate, in the form of an oval. The inflorescence is a head-shield, contains scarlet-red flowers, forty to fifty mm in diameter, the petals are divided into four lobules.
Lychnis "Xaare" (Lychnis x haageana).
This garden hybrid variety grows to forty-forty-five cm. The leaves are oblong, in the form of an egg. Inflorescence-tassel, contains three to seven flowers of orange-red color, 52 mm in diameter. The deeply cut petals have a bend. Each side of the petal has an elongated narrow tooth. This species is frost-resistant. The most popular variety is "Molten Lava": the umbrella-shaped inflorescence contains bright red flowers, the leaves are painted in bronze colors.
Lychnis "Chalcedony" (Lychnis chalcedonica), or "Dawn".
Wildlife can be found in the Russian European territory, in the Mongolian, Siberian and Central Asian territories. This herbaceous perennial plant reaches 81-102 cm. The leaves are lanceolate, in the form of an egg or simply in the form of an egg. The inflorescence is a scutellum head, about ten cm in diameter, contains flowers of a fiery red color, 32 mm in diameter. The petals can have two blades or notches. The variety is frost-resistant. They began to cultivate it in 1561. There is a form for garden cultivation - "Albiflora" (white flowers, about 21 mm in diameter), as well as species that have simple or double flowers (pink with a red center). The variety "Maltese Cross" is popular - the bush blooms magnificently, the flowers are painted in bright red colors.
Lychnis "Jupiter" (Lychnis flos-jovis, Coronaria flos-jovis).
Wild can be found on the alpine slopes. Loose bush, grows up to 82 cm. Shoots branch, densely covered with foliage. The surface of shoots and lanceolate leaves is pubescent in the form of an oval. The flowers are of a simple structure, pale purple in color, 30 mm in diameter. There are forms with white and double flowers.