Cornel is a plant of the cornel family, there are about 50 different species in its genus. The dogwood is a deciduous tree, or a shrub, but it can also be a herbaceous plant. Cornel is translated into Russian as red, and it got its name from its bright, rich fruits. Basically, this plant grows in southern and eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Japan, China or the Caucasus. People began to plant it on their site for a very long time. This evergreen plant has a huge history, because it has passed through the centuries. Even in ancient times, this plant was used as a medicine and decoctions were cooked from it. Toothbrushes were originally made from the wood of this plant, and later they began to make knife handles, handles for hammers and other tools from tennis rackets, door handles and others.
Features of the plant.
In British Columbia, the flower of this plant is recognized as the official one. But in America the whole tree is considered official. The most common type of this shrub is "ordinary". It very often grows up to 3 m in height, and has orange-red stems. This plant takes root very quickly and easily, literally it is enough to lean the shoot to the ground and wait a little time. Flowers of this wonderful white shrub gathering in inflorescences. Its fruits are not too large, bright red in color, they have one stone inside themselves, in the rare case of two. They begin to sing at the end of summer, or at the very beginning of autumn. Basically, the fruits are elongated, they reach 3 cm in length. Fruits of yellow, black or pink color are very rare, but still they are. The berries also taste different from each other, they are tart, sweet, dry and juicy. It all depends on the variety of the plant itself. Growing a dogwood as a bush or tree is already up to you, without forming it in different ways. Also, another advantage of this shrub is that it can easily endure almost any winter frost. In favorable conditions for him, his life reaches almost a century.
How and when to plant.
It is best to plant dogwood in open ground in the fall, when the first leaves begin to fall from other trees. Autumn is chosen precisely because in the spring you need to catch a time when the earth is already warming up enough, but the buds have not yet begun to bloom, and this period is quite difficult to guess. It is necessary to choose a site for planting a shrub or tree in advance and very carefully, because it will have to grow in the same place for more than a dozen years. It is best if you plant your plant not directly under the scorching sun, but in a slight partial shade. Please note that the groundwater must be deep underground and there must be enough lime in the ground. Of course, it can grow in other soil, but its development will not be much worse. In this case, accordingly, the fruits will be smaller and not as bright in color and taste. The distance between the bushes, or between the bushes and buildings should be at least 3 m, and preferably a little more. For correct and large fruiting, he must necessarily have a pair, but in general, ideally, there should be several shrubs. When choosing seedlings for planting, pay attention to the fact that they must be at least two years old. Such a plant has a height of about one and a half meters, and a trunk diameter of at least 2 cm. With all this, the seedling must have at least 3 skeletal branches. The planting pit needs to be prepared in advance, it should be about 60 cm deep. He needs to set a stake in the center.After the seedling is planted, the stake will serve as a support for it. When the planting hole is dug, it must be filled with nutritious soil with mineral fertilizer and humus. Seedlings must be installed strictly in the center of the pit. After it is installed and the roots are neatly straightened, it must be gradually covered with fertile soil. The root collar of the seedlings must be about 5 cm above the ground. After the seedling has been planted, it must be watered with warm water and at the same time it is very offensive. Also, after planting, the stems of the plant are shortened by about 1/3, and the plant itself must be mulched.
How to take care of it properly.
In principle, growing dogwood is absolutely nothing complicated; they plant and grow it just like other shrubs. All he needs is timely watering, weeding and loosening. The obvious advantage of this shrub is that it gives off its fruits every year, without interruption. But this is only if the flower buds had time to fully form while the plant was actively growing. Accordingly, it is clear that during its growth the plant requires the most care and attention. So that during watering the water simply does not spread over the ground, it is best to make a small ditch around the bush. Water the plants in moderation and make sure that the water does not stagnate, otherwise it can harm the shrub, its root system may simply start to rot. After each watering, loosening must be carried out, in which case you simultaneously perform two tasks, loosen the soil so that oxygen gets into the root system of the plant as best as possible and remove all weeds. The depth to which you need to loosen should be no more than 10 cm, otherwise you can damage the root system of the bush. In the first half of summer, nitrogen and phosphorus should be used as top dressing, and in the second half, potassium will already be needed, which is why fertilizing in this case is better with pure wood ash. Also for dogwood it is very well suited as a fertilizer with humus and compost. It is thanks to these fertilizers that you will get a good and rich harvest. Dogwood simply needs regular pruning. First of all, in the spring, at the very beginning, it is imperative to cut off the branches that have suffered from winter frosts, dried up or were injured. This is done this way because pests and diseases initially infect just such branches. The trimming tool must be sharp and preferably treated with a disinfectant. It is better to cut out old shoots completely, then in this case the young ones will be stronger and stronger. But as for the grafted bush, then you need to cut off all the stems completely.
Diseases and pests.
In principle, the dogwood is quite resistant to disease, but still the fungus can attack it. If this happened, then it will be outwardly noticeable right away, because at the point, from the first day, all the foliage will begin to become covered with yellow specks. Bordeaux fluid is very suitable in the fight against diseases. Although colloidal sulfur can be used with the same success. The most common diseases are powdery mildew, spotting. And among the pests - this is the worm. By the way, you can use ordinary lime to get rid of this insect. And for the purpose of prevention, it never hurts to whiten the trunk of a plant. Some gardeners are afraid to plant dogwood only because they believe that, in the Moscow region or in Moscow, it simply will not survive. But this is not so, because breeders are constantly working on this issue and are developing more and more new varieties, which feel favorable even in Siberia. Many of them easily tolerate temperatures even below -30 ° C. Even with such a harsh winter, the dogwood will produce a fairly rich harvest, but this is only if you take proper care of it.Keep in mind that care is always standard, regardless of the climate in which the shrub grows. The only difference is that in a harsh climate, a young plant that is only a year old must be insulated for the winter, but before insulating it, it must be mulched. Dogwood can be propagated in many ways. In a rare case, seeds are used for this, but consider right away that their germination is not very good. Anyway, this method is not very convenient and very long. Seeds must be prepared in advance, at least one year before sowing. That is, initially they need to be removed from the shell, and then put into wet sawdust, where they will remain for almost a whole year. Moreover, the humidity must be monitored constantly, they should not dry out. After they swell, they can be planted in the ground, but no deeper than 3 cm. But from the ground they will germinate within about three months. And the germination of seeds, as mentioned above, is rather bad. After sowing, these plants are looked after just like any other, there are no differences. That is, grooves about two cm deep are made in the container, seeds are placed, covered with earth, sprayed with a spray bottle, covered with a film and placed in a warm, dark place. Do not forget that it is necessary to moisten and ventilate the container every day, the earth should not dry out in any case. In one year after sowing the seeds, the seedlings will grow only up to 4 cm. Next year they can grow up to 15. It will already be possible to plant such plants in the open ground in autumn. Keep in mind that when planting this shrub, you will receive the first fruits no earlier than in 5 years, and maybe even later. After the young seedlings grow up and get stronger, they can be used as a rootstock. You can also carry out propagation using cuttings, this method is much easier. Green cuttings are suitable for reproduction, and a brother needs shrubs that are at least 5 years old. Cuttings should be climbed no more than 15 cm long, it is best if these actions take place early in the morning, while there is still no sun. Each cutting should have at least two leaves and the buds must be well developed. Before planting the cutting in the ground in its lower part, absolutely all leaves must be removed. And also the cutting should be placed in a growth stimulator of the root system for several hours. After the cuttings are infused in the stimulant, they must be rinsed under running water. After the entire procedure, the cuttings can be planted in open ground, but they should be in a fairly dark place, planted at an angle, and on top of the ground there must be a layer of sand of about 5 - 7 cm.After planting the cuttings, it must be wrapped with plastic wrap, so so that there is a hole on top. After planting, the stalk must be watered well with water, and then make sure that the ground is constantly slightly moistened. Also, the cutting is best sprayed regularly with a spray bottle. If it is too hot under the film, then it needs to be carefully removed and ventilated. After about a month, or even a little bit, or earlier, the cuttings have already taken root. After rooting has occurred, you need to gradually remove the film and harden the plants, this is done gradually, over two weeks. After the plant is hardened, the film cover can be removed altogether. After the film is removed, you need to water and the first top dressing, ammonium nitrate is very suitable for this, but it must be used strictly according to the instructions.
How to reproduce correctly.
Dogwood can also be propagated by grafting. In August or the very beginning of September, already rooted are well suited for this, the seedlings of which should be at least two years old.That in order for the grafting to pass correctly, cultivated varieties of dogwood can be used as a scion, and wild varieties are necessarily used as a stock. Instruments for this procedure must be sharp and disinfected. In order for the grafting to go well, the cut site needs to be carefully moved apart in different directions and the scion should be fixed on it. To do this, you can use a simple electrical tape or tape. If you did everything correctly, then after 3 weeks the petiole will fall off on its own. And in a month it will be already possible to remove the electrical tape. There is also another fairly simple way - this is reproduction by layering.In order to get layering, you need to take an annual stem in the spring after the earth warms up enough around the bush, digs up the earth and fertilizes. After that, you need to make a small groove to bend the selected stem, which is about two years old. Dig it in with earth and water it well. In general, the cuttings need to be watered regularly so that the place where the roots will grow is constantly moisturized. At the layering, it is imperative to do a pinch at the crown. So that all his power is gone precisely in order for the roots to form. After about 3 weeks, the shoot will grow in length, so it will also need to be sprinkled with earth a little. In the fall, or after waiting for next spring, the cuttings will need to be cut off from the shrub itself and carefully dig up the soil so as not to damage the root system and transplant to a permanent place. There is also another very easy way to reproduce, by dividing an adult bush. Basically, this is done already when it is time to transplant an adult bush. It is imperative to carry out this procedure in the spring before the buds have time to swell, or in the fall a month before the first frost begins. For this, the dogwood must be carefully dug out of the ground, and absolutely all the old soil must be removed from the roots, it is best if you even rinse them, but always remember that the water must be warm. After the roots are clean, they need to be soaked in a container of water for a couple of hours. After that, the bush can be divided. This must be done in several equal parts, the instrument must be sharp and disinfected for this. Before planting separate parts in a new place, it is better to cut off the old roots completely, and shorten the young ones a little.
The dogwood has a lot of species and varieties, for example, the common dogwood, this species is generally the most popular on the site, it can be found more often than the others. Among its varieties are very often found such as: Pyramidalis. Nana. Variegata. Aurea. Aurea variegata. White dogwood species. This species is slightly less popular than the common dogwood. It mainly grows in Japan, China and Korea. It can also be found very often in Russia. Such a shrub can grow to a height of more than 3 m, but its branch is quite thin and flexible. Depending on the variety, they can be orange-red, red-black and even brown. Leaves in length can even reach 12 cm, and outwardly they are slightly wrinkled. In autumn, such a shrub changes its color to lilac red. and the flowers can grow up to 5 cm in diameter. This shrub blooms 2 times per season. But as for the fruits, they are not red, like in almost all other species, but white with a blue tint. As for the varieties. The most popular are: silver-bordered. Elegantissima. Siberica Aurea. Siberica Variegata. Another popular interesting species is the red dogwood, or as it is also called blood red. Basically, this species grows from the Balkans to the southern part of Scandinavia, or from the Don to the Baltic. It grows both in small foxes and on the coasts of lakes and rivers. This shrub grows to a height of more than 4 m. The stems can be either red or green. And the leaves have a rich, green light.With the onset of autumn, the leaves change their color and then they become bright red. The flowers are collected in inflorescences are white, and they reach 7 cm. The flowering of this species, unlike the others, can last up to 3 weeks. Bright red berries against a background of green leaves look just unforgettable! The most popular varieties of this type are: Greenest. Variegata. Dogwood Mitch. As for the flowering dogwood, its homeland is North America. This small, deciduous tree has a high density and a fluffy crown. Initially, it is bright green in the fall, the leaves turn bright red. There are few varieties of this type, but the most popular are: Cherokee Chief. Rubra. There is also such a species as the search dogwood. This species is most often found in North America. This species is very fond of moisture, so it grows near water bodies, or in humid forests. By itself, this species is very similar to the white dogwood. But this type gives a lot more layers. This shrub grows to a height of 2.5 m. Its stems are always coral red olike, bright green flowers are white, like all other species. The most popular varieties of this type are: White-bordered. Flaviramea. Kelsey. there is also such a species as kouza dogwood. he came to us from Japan and China. This shrub tolerates absolutely any frost very well. And it is just huge, because the height can grow up to 10 m. Like all other species, green summer leaves turn bright red with the onset of autumn. The main varieties are: Gold Star. Milky Way.
The benefits and harms of the plant.
There are also such types Dogwood, the so-called creeping. these species include Swedish dogwood and Canadian dogwood. There are also the Svida genus, the Meira species and the Georgian. such a plant as a moron can not only benefit and harm. As a rule, it is the Cornelian cherry that is beneficial, but instant. Its berries contain a lot of vitamin C. Also, from these berries, they are often used to make a paste against diseases such as scurvy, mostly sailors use it. Also, with the help of the berries of this shrub, you can get rid of diarrhea. Also, the berries of this shrub are very often recommended for people with diabetes, as they are very good at lowering blood sugar. The pancreas begins to work more actively. These berries do a very good choleretic action, and digestion is normal. And when these berries are consumed, the pressure returns to normal. They also work very well in treating swelling of the hands and feet. Skin rashes also disappear when taken. There are beneficial properties not only in berries, but also in the foliage of the plant. Very often, a tincture is made from dogwood, for this you need 200 milliliters of edible alcohol and 50 grams of small chopped leaves. After two weeks, the setting will be ready and it must be applied 10 drops three times a day, best diluted with water. Very often, a decoction of berries is prepared for this you need to take 200 milliliters of water and one tablespoon of dried fruits. All this is boiled for 20 minutes over low heat. After that, the broth must be drained and taken in 1/4 cup 3 times a day before meals. You can make a decoction from the roots and bark of the bush. for this, milliliters of water are also taken and one teaspoon of crushed bark and roots is added there. The mixture must be boiled for 15 minutes, and then infused for 2 hours. After the broth is ready, you need to strain it and take 2 tablespoons 3 times a day. From the berries of this shrub, you can prepare delicious preparations for the winter, for example, compotes and jam. And from the dried berries, you can cook compotes in winter and make tea with them.
but besides the fact that dogwood is very useful, it also has contraindications. High acidity in the body or weak intestines, frequent constipation or intolerance to birth itself will cause you great harm. And also, in no case should it be eaten by those people who have problems with the nervous system.Of course, this plant has much more benefits than harm, but before you eat it, you must take into account the state of your body. Do not be afraid, plant a plant in your area, because caring for it is very simple. And besides the fact that it will decorate absolutely any corner of your garden, it will bring great benefits to your health. As mentioned above, it is absolutely not difficult to take care of the plants, the dogwood is quite unpretentious. He has a huge number of advantages, in addition to the fact that he is simply very beautiful, it can bloom up to 2 times a season with beautiful flowers, and then it will simply be strewn with beautiful, red fruits, it will simply be impossible to tear your eyes away from him. And the fact that it perfectly tolerates winter frosts, does not require any insulation or shelters, is also one of its advantages. And it is quite simple to propagate this wonderful plant, especially if you choose the method of cuttings. If you bring such a shrub on your site, Cyril you will not only enjoy its beauty, but also significantly improve your health and when you eat its berries, you will gain a lot of strength and energy. The main thing is that everything should be in moderation.