Haworthia is a miniaturnon, a dwarf succulent plant of the Asphodelic subfamily. Freely growing in nature, it can be found in the territories of South African countries. Thanks to Adrian Haworth, an English botanist, the place of birth of the flower was determined and a classification was given, in honor of him the name was given. The plant has fleshy dark green leafy plates forming rosettes at the very base. Some species have short stems. The accumulation of fluid occurs in the leaves where there are thickenings that serve as reservoirs for fluid. Thanks to this ability, the plant can feel comfortable even during a long period of drought. Leaves may have a jagged or smooth edge, some of which have white raised tubercles. Bushes very often form side shoots. The appearance of small white flowers does not increase the decorative effect of the plant.
This succulent plant is deciduous and ornamental.
It prefers to grow in a place where there is a lot of sunlight, windows on the east or west side are well suited. Holders of foliage of monochromatic colors are preferable to clean in semi-shady places when the summer heat is outside. The room temperature is ideal for growing this succulent.
During the period of active growth and development, the soil should be watered moderately and carried out after the surface layer of the earthen mixture dries out. During the winter cold, when the plant is resting, you can limit yourself to one watering every 30 days. It is unpretentious to the level of humidity in the room. It needs fertilizing, which should be applied from mid-spring to the end of the summer season at intervals of 30 days. Complex fertilizers, which are fed to cacti, but much less concentrated, are perfect for him. It should be half the size indicated in the instructions. When a plant goes into vegetative sleep, it does not change its appearance.
Transplantation of young bushes should be carried out every 12 months, for adults it is enough 1 time in three years and only in the spring.
Reproduces in a vegetative way. For this, the daughter sockets are separated.
As a rule, only mealybugs and scale insects can be found on the plant.
The plant has good immunity, but putrefactive diseases can begin due to the large amount of moisture.
Growing a bush
Haworthia can become a spectacular bush that decorates the house, if you follow all the recommendations regarding agricultural technology and intended for this type of culture:
First of all, you need to choose a suitable place for the growth of the plant and the ideal option would be the western, eastern or even southern side, but it is necessary to protect it from the daytime summer sun, they should not touch the plant, it must be shaded.
With the onset of spring and throughout the summer, irrigation should be carried out using a moderate amount of water. With the onset of winter cold weather, the flower must be transferred to a cool room where the thermometer shows at least 10 and does not exceed 12 degrees. Watering is carried out only once a month.
A bush is transplanted every year into a pot where a good
drainage, shallow depth and width. Leafy, turfy land will make a good earthy mix for the comfortable development of Haworthia. It also needs a small amount of gravel or crushed stone, a third is enough.
Haworthia is a very attractive and showy plant that is very undemanding to care for. Therefore, any person who does not have any skills and knowledge can cope with its cultivation. It is enough to know only small rules for care.
With the onset of extreme heat, a bush growing where a lot of sunlight falls on it must be shaded by transferring it to the appropriate place. If possible, a terrace or balcony would be an excellent option. This succulent plant is not demanding on the level of humidity, which means that you do not need to create special conditions for it.
It is important to regularly air the room where the flower is grown throughout the year.
Watering the Hawortia can only be done with soft water. It can be rain or settled. During irrigation, only the surface layer of the soil mixture is wetted, for this type this will be quite enough. In summer, this is done at the moment the earth dries up, and in winter, if the plant is at a suitable temperature of + 10- + 12 degrees, only once every 30 days. If it was not possible to provide such conditions and the thermometer is at the level of +18 - + 20 degrees and exceeds this value, then it should be watered every 14 days. When watering, it is necessary to protect the outlet from liquid getting there, as this can cause the formation of rot.
Since flowers do not increase the decorative effect of the plant, they must be removed when peduncles appear. In this way, the strength of the bush can be maintained.
Succulent should be fed regularly. Such events are held from mid-spring to August. Fertilizers are applied at intervals of 30 days. An excellent option as a top dressing will serve as a mixture that fertilizes cacti, but the concentration level should be half as much as indicated on the label. Gardeners with extensive experience in growing such plants talk about the need to mix fertilizers with water used for irrigation. With the onset of autumn, all feeding stops.
The plant is transplanted as needed. This may be due to the small size of the container. At a young age, a transplant is required once every 12 months, and in an adult, once every three years is enough. The pot should not be deep or too wide, as succulent plants do not like space. Excessively deep capacity often causes stagnant moisture, which has a detrimental effect on the health of the roots. You can make an earthen mixture yourself, or you can purchase a ready-made mixture intended for growing cacti in a specialized store. But in order to increase its drainage, it is necessary to add expanded clay there in a small amount and clay. At the bottom of the container, it is necessary to lay out a drainage layer of pebbles, broken brick or crushed stone. There are no difficulties in transplanting a plant, so even a beginner does not need to be afraid of this.
At the time of the formation of new roots on the side outlet, it can be separated from the mother bush and transplanted into a separate container with a previously prepared and moist soil mixture. If cuttings that have two or three leaves and do not have roots are separated, then it is necessary to process the cut site with wood ash, dry it for several days and plant it in loose sandy soil allowing them to take root. As soon as the cutting takes root, it must be transplanted into a container with an earthen mixture. The exact same procedure is carried out with a green shank. As soon as it is cut, it must be dried in the garden or on an open window for several days and planted in light, moist sandy soil. Watering is not necessary until the horses are formed, it is enough to lightly spray the ground from a spray bottle. It is not necessary to create greenhouse conditions with the help of film or glass, as this can cause the development of rot. The best way to propagate the plant is in the spring.
Sowing seeds takes place on top of the ground, which must be loose, wet sand is also suitable. The container is covered on top with glass or film and removed to where the temperature does not drop below +20 and does not exceed +25 degrees.When propagating haworthia with seeds, you need to be patient, as this will take a lot of time. This is probably why the vegetative method is used by gardeners much more often.
Variety of species
- Haworthia fasciata (striped) is a stemless cultivar. It is made up of dense rosettes located at the roots of leaf plates, which are quite thick original and have a lanceolate shape. On the surface side, the leaf is smooth and green, on the inside it is covered with white convex stripes. Their length is about 5 centimeters, and the width of the leaves is no more than one and a half centimeters.
- Hawortyia attenuata (drawn) - has a similarity to the previous plant, but not as spectacular. The leaf blades are covered with raised dots, which may be green or may be white. They have a lanceolate shape, are located upward with a length of about 7 centimeters, and a width of one and a half centimeters.
- Haworthia tortuosa is also called twisting aloe. This variety has a small trunk, no more than 15 centimeters in height. Dark green leaves grow up to 2.5 centimeters in length, with a warty surface on the inner convex side.
- Hawōrthia viscōsa (sticky) - this shrub can grow up to 20 centimeters. Erect leaves of small size and oval shape are arranged in three rows. At the end, the leaf is slightly bent. They are 2.5 centimeters long and 1.5 centimeters wide.
- Haworthia cymbiformis (navicular) - This plant has fleshy glossy lance-shaped leaves. They form a rosette located at the base with a diameter of 10 centimeters. When lateral shoots appear, it increases in diameter up to 20 centimeters.
- Haworthia margaritifera (pearl) is a herbaceous perennial succulent with an almost completely absent stem. It consists of tough leaves 8 centimeters long and 2.5 centimeters wide, with an oval shape and a slight taper. They are painted green and studded with white pearl-like beads on both sides. Their formation takes place in the root rosette.
- Haworthia tesselata (checkerboard) - small rosettes are composed of thick leaves, whose shape is triangular and whose edges are covered with denticles. On the outside of the leaves, a grid is drawn with white strokes. The inner surface has a warty surface.
- Haworthia reinwardtii (Reinwardt) - The elongated rosette of this species consists of fleshy triangular leaves, 3.5 centimeters long and 1.5 centimeters wide. Pronounced dark rows, which cover the inner side of the leaf plate along and across, are strewn with whitish warts.
This species includes a zebrin, one of the varieties, its leaves are covered with bright warts, the leaves are larger and the bush itself is very effective. The young bush has an erect stem, but after a while it takes an upright position.
- Haworthia retusa - This plant is adorned with tough, fleshy leaves with three edges about 5 centimeters long. The top of the leaf is slightly curved. Surface with transparent windows and light strokes. The color of the leaves may vary. Green with brown, green with a touch of red and green. Varieties can be few chlorophilic and variegated forms.
The Gigant variety has large dissected leaf blades.
Haworthia has a strong immune system that protects it from disease. The cause of the disease can only be a violation of agrotechnical rules. If you follow all the rules for caring for a plant, then for many years you will not have to worry about its health.