Forsythia is a genus of not very large shrubs and trees, which are prominent representatives of the olive family. The flowering of these plants occurs at the very beginning of spring, the flowers turn out to be of a bright saturated yellow color, which more resembles a yellow cloud. This genus is, perhaps, one of the most ancient, and it is for this reason, perhaps, that plants are so widespread all over the world and are very popular.
On the territory of East Asia, six types of forsythia are cultivated at once, but as for European states, then you can meet only one type of this planting. In this article we will dwell in more detail on the description of this plant, we will talk about its characteristics, features. We will also provide detailed information on how to properly plant and care for forsythia in order to get a truly incredible and decorative, healthy plant. This article will also be devoted to describing the most common varieties and types of forsythia.
Forsythia: description of the plant, features of the culture, care
Forsythia is a medium-sized tree that can also grow as a shrub. The height of forsythia ranges from one to three meters. The bark is brownish-gray and has a very rough texture. There are some types of forsythia, in which the leaves are triple.
But most often there are species that have ellipsoidal or oval leaves, simple. Their edges may be slightly serrated. The length of the leaves can also be different - from two to fifteen centimeters. The flowers are painted in a rich yellow hue, they are more like bells in shape, they look pretty cute and attractive, and therefore attract the attention of gardeners and florists from all over the world.
Forsythia bloom begins at the very beginning of spring, the flowering duration is on average twenty days, if, of course, the gardener has created the most favorable conditions for growth and development for the plant. Flowering can sometimes take longer as some species produce abundance and this is encouraged. In place of the faded flowers, a fruit is formed, which most of all resembles a box in which winged seeds are located. They are great for further propagation of forsythia, but be sure to stratify the seeds before planting them.
Today forsythia is used in European countries in order to decorate city parks and squares with it, places with a large crowd of people. In addition, forsythia looks great on the territory of personal plots. In fact, its flowering at the very beginning of spring is a symbol of the approaching warm season.
A distinctive feature of this plant is also the fact that it blooms really early - when nature just wakes up, forsythia gives incredible yellow clouds that really decorate the territories, making them bright and attractive.
Also, gardeners and florists are very fond of this plant also because it is, in principle, completely unpretentious, and does not impose any serious requirements, if we talk directly about care and agricultural technology.
There are some features growing forsythia, which we will now list:
- this plant will adapt best of all and grow in a lighted place, but you can also plant bushes in shade or in diffused light, they will not lose their attractiveness and decorativeness, and this is their great advantage;
- it is advisable to choose limestone soil, since in it the plant adapts best of all and will demonstrate its maximum growth and development;
- It is also recommended to plant forsythia near dark green conifers, since forsythia will stand out even more against their background, and look very attractive and interesting - this is already advice for landscape designers and those gardeners who are interested in decorating their site with forsythia.
In autumn, the leaves can change their color, they become purple, purple, there are also species that turn into a golden hue closer to autumn. It is from this that the plant becomes even more attractive and decorative, and stands out perfectly against the background of many other garden deciduous plantings. But, again, no one canceled the rules of the neighborhood, although forsythia, due to its unpretentiousness, can take root with almost all plants and crops, it will feel great, and will not interfere with the development of other plantings.
Forsythia - landing
Planting forsythia or its transplantation is carried out either in the spring, or at the very beginning of the autumn period. This must be done before the frosts begin, so that the plant has time to adapt and take root, otherwise the decorative result will not be so bright and the plant also perfectly takes root in shading, but nevertheless, when choosing a place, take into account the photophilousness of forsythia, as well as the fact that the planting it is worth protecting from drafts and too harsh gusts of wind.
As for the quality and composition of the soil mixture, these moments have absolutely no meaning for forsythia. But, as more experienced gardeners say, the plant feels most comfortable in drier, slightly alkaline soil.
In the event that soil with an increased level of acidity is located on the site, it is recommended to add a little wood ash to it when digging - this will balance the composition of the soil, make it even more favorable. Of course, this will all depend on the interest of the gardener himself, as well as on whether he has enough free time to take care of the planting and prepare the place and soil for this plant.
Let's talk a little about features landing.
First, the gardener prepares a pit, which in size and parameters should be within 50x50x60 centimeters. The forsythia root system should be located at a depth of thirty to forty centimeters in order to feel as comfortable and safe as possible. If the gardener carries out not a single, but a group planting, then between the plants it is necessary to observe the distance, which is about one and a half meters, not less.
At the bottom of the pit, which is prepared in advance, the gardener lays a drainage layer, which may consist of expanded clay, crushed stone, fine broken brick or coarse sand. The thickness of the drainage layer should be from fifteen to twenty centimeters, as this will allow moisture to safely leave the soil so as not to stagnate in it and not cause the risk of developing putrefactive and fungal diseases directly in the root system.
On top, the drainage layer is sprinkled with a layer of sand, its thickness should be at least ten centimeters. After that, the previously purchased or prepared soil mixture is poured directly into it. The soil mixture consists of sand, leafy earth and peat.
It is also necessary to add a little wood ash there to make the acid balance neutral, and then the soil will be a more favorable environment for the development of forsythia.
The seedling is neatly placed in a hole, which is then filled with soil mixture and compacted by hand. When forsythia is planted in the ground, it should be watered abundantly using settled water at room temperature. Rainwater or melt water will also work.If the seedlings are sent to open ground, then they should be further looked after in the same way as adult plants are looked after.
If the gardener assigns a planting to autumn, then it will not matter to which variety the forsythia belongs - the near-trunk circle will definitely need to be promulgated.
In the winter, the plant is also covered, since after the autumn planting it will not have time to accumulate immune properties, and there is a great risk that it simply will not survive the winter. The covering material must necessarily be breathable so that the buds on the plant do not begin to rot due to the developed greenhouse effect. This can be especially dangerous during the period of small thaws in winter, so it is worth taking good care of this factor.
How to care for forsythia
As for caring for the plant, in this case it is worth using the same rules and subtleties as for other bushes and trees that grow in the garden, backyard plot.
If the summer is very rainy, then you can not water the forsythia at all, since there will be enough rainfall for it. Watering it is worth exercising if an arid and sultry air temperature is suddenly established. In this case, moisture is applied once or twice a month. One bush should use from ten to twelve liters of water - watering will not be very frequent, but very plentiful.
After watering it is necessary weed out root circle and loosen the soil about 30 centimeters. Only in this way it is possible to create favorable conditions, as well as to ensure the penetration of air and water into the root system, and this will play a very important role in the growth and development of the planting.
When the gardener stops loosening, then the trunk circle is necessary mulched. Peat or compost, humus, sawdust or dry deciduous soil should be taken as mulch. Mulch will allow moisture to evaporate more slowly, keep the soil warm and protect the plant from pest attacks.
Feed the plant is recommended three times per season. The first top dressing is carried out at the very beginning of spring, for this, a layer of manure is laid out in the near-trunk circle, which before that must have been overwhelmed, and the layer must be impressive. It is also worth making sure that the manure never touches the branches or the trunk itself, otherwise it can provoke the development of diseases. Then the bush is watered with abundant moisture.
Manure will not only become an effective organic fertilizer, but it will also act as a mulch. The mineral composition is then added to the soil, and this must be done already in April.
When the plant stops flowering, and flower buds begin to swell for the next season, the plant should be fed again. For this, a fertilizer called Kemira-wagon is ideal. This fertilizer is generally considered one of the most suitable for many plants, and forsythia is no exception to the rule here. True, it is necessary to carefully study the instructions for use so as not to harm the plant.
In order to propagate forsythia, it is necessary to use vegetative methods.
For example, grafting is an excellent opportunity to propagate forsythia and maintain the characteristics of the mother bush. Green cuttings are harvested in June, while their length should be at least fifteen centimeters. At the cutting, the leaves are cut off, which are at the very bottom of the shrub, and the cuttings must be treated with special preparations. For example, these are means for stimulating root growth - epin or root, from the less known, you can choose heteroauxin, which are diluted in accordance with the instructions for use.
Then the cuttings are planted in greenhouse conditions; sand or perlite is perfect for this, in which the cuttings are placed. For reproduction, not only young cuttings can be suitable, but also those that have time to woody. They are prepared in October, and for rooting, it is recommended to plant such lignified cuttings directly into the open ground. Two to three large viable buds are left on the surface.
Do not forget about the protection of cuttings - they are covered with fallen leaves for the winter, so that the plantings do not freeze and die. In the spring, the cover is removed, but only when stable warm weather is already established. After that, the cuttings will already take root and begin to gradually demonstrate their growth and development. In the fall, the cuttings will already form into full-fledged seedlings, which will then be planted in a permanent place for rooting and further growth.
In order to propagate forsythia, you can also use layering. In order to get a full-fledged and strong planting material, it is necessary in the summer or already in the fall to choose from all the stems the one that will grow very close to the soil surface. At the very base, this stem is pulled over with wire, and a small incision is made on the bark.
It will not take much time for the cuttings to take root if the stem is correctly fixed on the surface of the soil and sprinkled with a small amount of soil. In the spring, the cuttings are separated from the parent bush, after 10-12 months the cuttings will turn into a normal and flowering bush.
Of course, you can use the method of planting planting materials, but in this case, the gardener must have experience and certain skills in this matter, because if the gardener has no idea how to propagate forsythia with seeds, then it is best to turn to the first two methods. reproduction of this plant.
When the bushes are still very young, then they must be cut off. Usually it's just sanitary pruning, and during it all injured, dried, damaged and frostbitten stems should be removed, which not only will not give the plant life, but will interfere with its normal development, spoil its appearance.
If we are dealing with adult plants, then in the spring it is necessary to cut off only those ends of the branches that are very frozen, and will no longer give any result in growth and, moreover, in flowering. The main pruning is planned for the summer, when the bush fades, so as not to cause severe harm to it.
Branches that have had time to bloom must be cut in about half, but dried and aged branches are removed entirely. They can also be cut to about four to six centimeters from the topsoil. Then, in the future, young lateral branches will begin to move away from these branches, and the plant will feel even more comfortable, begin to expand, become more dense, decorative.
With the help of pruning, you can not only form a bush, but also control the height of the plant, its width, regulate the density of the crown, since excessive thickening is not only not recommended, but in general can be very dangerous for the plant.
If we are dealing with a very old bush, then it must be subjected to anti-aging pruning, but here it has its own subtleties and rules. All branches are removed to a height of four to six centimeters, thanks to this pruning, young and viable branches and layering, shoots will grow more actively.
But often rejuvenating pruning is also not worth it, since because of this, the plant may grow too much, and the flowering will stop, since the plant will throw all its strength exactly to replenish the growth of shoots and layering.
Rejuvenating pruning is recommended to be done once every three or four years, here again it is worth focusing on the fact that the plant itself shows its state by its appearance.
Diseases and pests that forsythia is susceptible to
Forsythia is a plant that has a high level of stress resistance and excellent immunity against diseases and attacks from pests.
Very rarely, a bush can get sick with moniliosis, wilting, and sometimes there are signs of bacteriosis.
If the bush is infected wilting, then in this case it is recommended to process it with a foundation solution. If forsythia was infected with bacteriosis, then it is generally necessary to immediately dig up the plant and burn it together with a clod of earth around the root system, since the plant cannot be cured of bacteriosis.
If the gardener noticed spots painted brown on the very surface of the leaf plates, then this indicates that the bush was infected moniliosis. In this case, all parts of the plant that have been infected must be cut and destroyed. Further, the gardener must constantly monitor the state of the planting.
Also, the bush can suffer from an attack from the side nematodes, and in this case, the soil must be treated with a disinfectant called carbation. But, again, it is necessary to closely monitor the state of the plant, to control how it grows and develops, whether there are any slowdowns and deviations. Only under the careful supervision of the gardener can it be guaranteed that the plant will retain its immunity, its resistance to stress, and everything will only benefit it.
Preparing for winter
In order for the plant not to suffer in winter, it must be covered and protected from frost. To do this, sprinkle the trunk circle with dried foliage, the layer thickness should be at least ten centimeters. The twigs are bent to the surface of the earth and fixed there, and then the bush is covered from above with abundant spruce branches. At the very beginning of spring, the shelter is gradually removed, the branches are freed from the clamps.
Fallen leaves are also removed, the trunk circle is cleaned and covered with fresh mulch again. If the bushes are still very young, then for the winter it is necessary to cover them with whole spruce branches.
If the winter is predicted to be very snowy, then, in general, forsythia can do without additional shelter. But still, you can never give a 100% accurate weather forecast, so it is recommended to play it safe and cover the bushes so that they do not suffer and do not freeze. In addition, the shelter never took very long, but the gardener will avoid the death of his plantings, and in gratitude, they will demonstrate incredible flowering in the new season.
Of course, gardeners are especially interested in information about the types of forsythia and its most common varieties. Further in this article, we will just talk in more detail about this, as well as about what features the species and varieties have. This information will be of interest to both inexperienced gardeners and those who already have experience in growing forsythia, but they would like to learn about new species and varieties in order to diversify their plots and refresh their appearance.
Forsythia species and common varieties
Forsythia European - This is a particularly popular species that is very fond of gardeners and flower growers in our country. It takes root well in mid-latitudes and exhibits incredibly attractive external characteristics.
This is an upright shrub, its height can be up to two meters. Leaves are entire-edged, oblong, their length is about seven centimeters. The flowers are solitary, bell-shaped, painted mainly in a yellow-golden hue.
Flowering in itself is very abundant and decorative, and the plant itself is completely unpretentious in care, it can forgive some agrotechnical mistakes made by the gardener.If, of course, you still create a suitable microclimate for the plant, then it will react much better to the surrounding conditions, which will also affect its external characteristics.
Forsythia Giralda - this species is very similar in its characteristics to the European forsythia. But there is one significant difference - this species is not so frost-resistant when compared with a colleague.
The height of the shrub also reaches 200 centimeters, the shoots are almost straight, they are painted in a brownish-yellow hue, on the shoots themselves you can count up to four faces, and they look very interesting and attractive. The leaves are colored dark green, have an elongated shape, the length of the leaves reaches ten centimeters.
The plant usually blooms in May, the flowers look very graceful, they are painted in a pale yellow tint, and the petals are slightly twisted, which makes them look even more attractive and decorative. In principle, the combination of decorativeness and the absence of any special requirements makes this landing very profitable and interesting. Otherwise, it is worth maintaining the same rules and conditions for planting and caring for a plant.
Forsythia hanging - in other words, it is called drooping or drooping, but these are all names of the same species, they should not be confused. The crown of the bush turns out to be spreading, the height usually reaches about three winds. The branches are drooping, thin, have an olive color, there are also brown-red branches, which, in contrast, look very interesting and attractive.
If the stems are very old, then they have simple leaves, but on the growth branches you can see that the leaves are rather trifoliate. The flowers are large, have a diameter of 2.5 centimeters, painted in a yellow-golden hue. They can be placed alone, or they can also be assembled in bundles of several pieces. Several forms of this type of forsythia are cultivated, which are also very important to talk about:
- variegated forsythia - the color of the flowers is very bright, sunny, yellow, and the name is fully justified here. At the same time, the leaves are pale, yellow, variegated, they also look very interesting and unusual;
- fortune - the flowers have a dark yellow color, they are collected in bunches of several flowers, but there are also single plantings. The leaves are narrow, may be trifoliate;
- purple-stemmed - the stems are colored dark red, hence the name. When the leaves open, then at this moment they are painted in exactly the same shade;
- other forms of forsythia are also very common in domesticating and gardening. Among them are Zimbold forsythia, deceiving forsythia, hanging formations. All of them are perfectly cultivated, do not require any special care, and, in principle, it is enough to create the most optimal and universal conditions for them for the plants to reveal their traits and characteristics.
Forsythia dark green - the height of the bush reaches three meters. The branches are green and point straight up. The leaves grow very densely, have an oblong shape, the upper part of the leaves is more serrated. The leaves are also painted in a dark green color, the length of one leaf usually reaches fifteen centimeters, and the width of the leaf is 4 centimeters. The bunches are few, they consist of flowers that are colored yellow-green, a very rich shade.
This type of plant differs in that it is quite resistant to dry weather, but it is still worth creating universal agrotechnical and caring conditions for it.
Forsythia intermediate Is a hybrid species that was obtained by crossing a dark green forsythia and drooping forsythia. In height, this bush can reach about three meters, the flowering of the bush falls on the period when it finally reaches the age of four years.The leaf is oblong, their edge is serrated, but there are also trifoliate leaves, which can reach ten centimeters in length.
The leaves of this species are painted in a dark green tint, while it is worth noting that their color does not change in any way exactly until the very late autumn period. The flowers have a rich yellow tint, there are single flowers, and there are flowers that are collected in small inflorescences-bunches.
Flowering usually occurs either in April or in May, the shrub is able to grow very quickly, besides, it is very resistant to severe frosts, or to periodic droughts. But, again, like any plant, it needs care and attention from the gardener. Among the varieties of this species, the following are distinguished:
- beatrice ferrand - the height of the bush reaches four meters, the flowers are rich, yellow, have a decorative and interesting strip of dark yellow color at the base;
- denziflora - the height of the bush, as well as the diameter, is only one and a half meters. The flowers are twisted, decorative, painted in a light yellow shade. Flowering occurs in the month of May, lasts from two to three weeks. This variety is categorically not adapted to frost, so by this time it must be carefully protected and protected;
- spectabilis - this variety is recognized by gardeners as almost the most beautiful and delicate. The height of the bush is one meter, and the diameter is about 120 centimeters. In the spring-summer period, the leaves are painted in a bright green color, but with the onset of autumn, this shade changes either to rich yellow or to purple-violet. The flowers are dark yellow in color, their diameter is 4-4.5 centimeters. Flowering occurs in the very last days of April. In general, this variety is quite whimsical, but if the gardener gives him every opportunity to grow and develop, then in return he will certainly receive an incredibly attractive bush planting.
Forsythia snowy (white is its second name). The height of this bush ranges from one and a half to two meters, the leaves are oval, their length reaches eight centimeters. The inside of the leaves can turn purple-violet, especially in summer.
The flowers themselves are painted in snow-white, pure color, but their throat is yellow. The color of the buds is light, pink. The plant is unpretentious, it can tolerate mistakes in agricultural technology, but it is better to keep an eye on it, since the risk of developing diseases is high.
Forsythia ovoid - the height of the bush is also from one and a half to two meters, the branches are spreading. Flowers about two centimeters in diameter, mostly solitary, have a bright yellow color. It is worth noting that this type of forsythia blooms much earlier than all other species, it also has high growth and development rates, is very resistant to dry periods and sharp frosts. Among the varieties of this type, the most popular are such as:
- spring glory - the height of the bush reaches three meters, in the summer the leaves have a bright green color, but in the fall the leaves become variegated. The bloom is very lush and begins in May. The flowers are large, painted in a rich yellow hue, and in general, the bush itself looks incredibly holistic and decorative;
- tetragold - the height of the bush is all one meter, the diameter of the dark yellow flowers is three centimeters. Flowering occurs in the second half of April, it can last up to three weeks, since the flowers do not bloom all at once, but a little gradually. In general, this variety is very interesting for those gardeners who do not yet have sufficient experience in growing and caring for such plants;
- goldsauber - the variety is very much appreciated by gardeners and has already gained great popularity.The flowers are very large, they are painted in a yellow-golden hue. Also, the variety has another advantage - it is resistant to frost and sudden changes in temperature. Flowering begins in the second half of April, it lasts about twenty days, no more. But you can create the most favorable conditions for the plant, then the flowering will become a little longer.
In principle, it is worth paying close attention to all plantings so that they receive enough attention from gardeners. Even not the most experienced gardener can handle the plant, and this is really a huge advantage of this planting.