How to properly shape tomatoes into 2 stalks?
Tomato pruning is a must, as all experienced gardeners know. At the same time, all unnecessary leaves, stepsons and processes are removed, which take a lot of energy from the bush itself. If you do not cut off all the extra processes in time, then the trunk becomes much heavier. And in this case, when fruits are formed on it, it can simply break down under its own weight.
Why do you need to carry out the formation
In fact, there is absolutely nothing difficult in growing a tomato, all that is required is an organized, regular watering. Timely feeding with all the necessary substances. And one more very important point is the necessary pruning. Tomatoes can be planted not only outdoors or in a greenhouse, but also at home on a windowsill. But for home cultivation, ordinary varieties are not suitable in any way, you need to choose ornamental plants. But for a greenhouse, greenhouse or open area, on the contrary, you need to choose those plants that grow large and fluffy. Also, in order for the plants to develop correctly, it is necessary to make all the necessary fertilizing in a timely manner. But pruning, which is given special importance when carried out correctly, will give the plant more intensive growth and stronger immunity.
Also, many breeders, and just experienced gardeners, know that pruning can increase the amount of future crops.
The same tomato bush can be grown for a long time. Properly cared for, tomatoes will always be healthy, large and fruitful. But pruning plays a very important role in this. It helps to keep the bush in the required form and protect it from such troubles as pests and various diseases.
Pruning should be done, looking primarily at the age of the plant, as well as its size. And pruning is very strongly influenced by the exact place in which the tomato grows.
Initially, tomato seedlings are quite thin and weak, which is why the first time the stepsons grow up several pieces at once. But it is best to prune them at a time when the seedling begins to actively grow in height. And the pruning of leaves should be carried out in the same way at this time, and this is done so that the plant releases as much of such a substance as possible, which contributes to an increase in the number of fruits, and the quality will only get better after that.
But remember that you only need to remove the inflorescences from the bush by cutting them off, you cannot cut them. You also need to check each branch of the stem, if something is wrong with them, then they also need to be cut off, this is done so that the seedling is healthy and the disease does not flutter in it.
The main reasons for the formation
There are several reasons why pruning must be done:
- The crop on pruned bushes always grows larger, and the bushes themselves develop correctly.
- Such bushes bear fruit regularly throughout the summer.
- With proper pruning, the bushes do not have extra processes and spend their energy only on the main branches and the resulting fruits.
- After pruning, the bushes have the correct shape and are well ventilated.
- On pruned bushes, the fruits ripen much faster.
If the bush has two stems, then it develops faster, the forces are evenly distributed, which has a positive effect on the fruits. The process of photosynthesis is better due to which the fruits are much tastier. All tomato varieties are divided into two types: determinant and indeterminate.
Determinant - these are tomatoes that, in principle, do not need pruning.They grow to a certain size, after which all the forces of the bush go only to the formation and development of fruits.
Indeterminate - these are varieties that grow constantly and give new leaves and shoots throughout their life. Basically, in such varieties, the fruits grow on the side, and the only way to somehow control the growth of the bush and give it the correct shape is to cut off the excess parts.
With the correct formation of the bush and its pruning: only strong and healthy stems remain. The height of the bush remains the one you need.
Bushes become less frequent as you remove all excess foliage, and photosynthesis is much better in this case.
The bushes are better ventilated, and this is the prevention of fungal diseases.
But be sure to keep in mind that it is not worth trimming the leaves over the fruits, they have a protective function for the fruits so that they do not get burned by direct sunlight.
How to prune properly
Stem formation is best for those plants that are tied to some kind of support. In this case, it will be much easier to understand which foliage is better and cut it off. And it becomes much easier to follow the development of the main stems. The main thing is not to overdo it and not to cut too much foliage. In everything you need to know when to stop.
When there is better air circulation between the bushes, and in the bush itself, the plant will be healthier. So pruning excess foliage directly depends on the prevention of many diseases. And from the damp, thinned bushes dry out much faster. And the fewer the leaves, the easier it is to see any pests on the bushes and start fighting them in time. But if your bushes are too thick, then it becomes much easier for insects to hide and reproduce.
But pruning needs to be done clearly at a certain time, and not when you want to. Of course, there is a possibility that there are fewer fruits on a trimmed bush, but they will definitely be larger. And such bushes take up less space on the site, which means that more bushes can be planted on the site.
When you prune excess shoots and unnecessary foliage, the plant no longer spends its energy on their development, respectively, they all go to the fruit. Especially pruning is very necessary closer to autumn, because there is little time for the growth and ripening of a tomato, because the cold is approaching, and as everyone knows that in the cold there are no vegetables ripen.
When asked when is the best time to start pruning, there is a very simple answer. It all depends on the height of the plant you need. If you need a short bush, then pruning should be done at a time when it grows to the desired size. And if the formation of the second stem is at this time, then the growth of the plant will be much slower.
In pinching a tomato, there should be its own order and frequency. And everyone has their own technique. If tomatoes are grown in a greenhouse, then it is best to do this once a week. But it is best to carry out such an event with rubber gloves, which must be disinfected after each lash. And this is done so that if a plant is infected with a fungus, you do not transfer its spores to a healthy one.
When to do it
Determinant tomato varieties can begin to be cut off and the purpose of formation is already at the time when they have formed 4 full-fledged bushes. You need to select two main trunks and tie them to a support so that in the future they do not break under their own weight, but otherwise you can trim.
And those varieties whose growth is able to stop on their own can not be cut off, but simply tied 1 or 2 stems to the support. Such tomatoes grow very easily in breadth. In the case of the growth of these bushes, you can simply leave all the foliage on the main stem, and leave no more than five brushes on the remaining branches, and cut off the rest mercilessly.
When tomatoes grow in a greenhouse, then pinching is needed earlier. In this case, the plant will become stronger. It is very simple to decide at what time the pinching should be carried out: the bush should grow to a height of about 30 cm and collect inflorescences. At this time, you need to completely cut off all the leaves and processes that are below the flowers. It is best to form two stems, respectively, on such bushes there will be a large number of fruits. It is not necessary to pick off the leaves above the recruited inflorescences, they will form a second trunk in the future. But on the stepson, you do not need to cut off the top too early, the leaves on it should have time to fully develop.
Also, the amount of foliage necessary to protect the fruits should remain on the second stem.
The pinching procedure should be carried out every week with an equal interval of days. After the bush grows to the required height, all the tops must be constantly pinched. And after a while, the new stepchildren will stop growing altogether. So in this procedure there is nothing complicated, only regularity is required, and then not at all for long.
So that there is no harm and stress for the bush, shoots must be removed as early as possible, when they have grown to only a few cm.In this case, it will be easier for the plant, and you can simply cut them off with your hands without using tools.
It is very difficult for inexperienced gardeners to determine which shoot will be stronger, and it is difficult to choose which one should be left and which ones should be removed. In this case, the bush is left to grow further, and pruning is carried out practically in an adult plant. But the bushes still need to be cleaned regularly, removing damaged leaves and shoots, poorly developing flowers and fruits are also better to pick off. If these procedures are carried out, then the bushes will be much stronger, and there will be more fruits on it.
Indeterminate varieties of tomatoes continue their flowering and fruiting until it disappears. In order for the fruits on the bush to be more and they definitely had time to ripen in a natural way, absolutely all new stepchildren should be cut off and the leaves should be started a month before the end of the season, because then the bush will not spend extra energy on them, but will direct them to the already existing fruits. There is absolutely nothing wrong with removing the shoots from the main trunk of the plant, and you do not need to regret anything. Yes, of course, at first it brings a little stress to the plant, but after a short time it only brings benefits.
If the tomatoes began to bloom very early, then it is better to cut off the flowers, otherwise the bush will throw all its strength on them, but it will no longer grow and form correctly. When the fruits have already formed around them, not a single stepson should remain. Only the foliage should remain that will protect the fruits from the sun's rays. If a lot of fruits have appeared on the bushes, but they are in no hurry to ripen or simply do not have time, for this you need to cut off the top of the main stem a month before the end of the season. In this case, the bush ceases to bloom altogether, and all the substances it secretes are beneficial to the fruits.
Of course, in the formation of a bush, as in everything else, there are opponents. They argue against carrying out this procedure: pruning exposes the plants to severe stress; The amount of the crop is getting smaller; the difference between cut and uncut bushes is not noticeable at all; the place of the cut may begin to rot, which can affect the whole bush.
But it must be borne in mind that every gardener has his own opinion, and it is not necessary to listen to other people's arguments. Always and in everything there are both agitators and opponents.
Tomatoes that are grown in pots can be pruned in the same way as those grown in a greenhouse or outdoors.
Of course, pruning is a very important procedure that brings a lot of benefits to plants, and in the future, to the harvest. But always remember that you need to approach everything wisely and not overdo it. There must be order in everything.With proper pruning, the plant will delight you, but after a strong and poor quality plant, it can hurt for a long time, and even die, so always watch your actions.