Black currant Lama is widely known among domestic gardeners. The reason for the popularity of the Lama currant variety lies in its outstanding technical properties - the ability to withstand winter cold and resist infectious diseases, as well as in the universal purpose of tasty fruits saturated with useful substances. This article is devoted to the main characteristics of the Lama black currant, the technology of its planting and the rules of care.
Origin of the variety
Black currant Lama: photo of the variety
In 1974, Barnaul became the homeland of the black currant Lama. Here, at the Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after V.I. I.I. Lisavenko scientists-breeders crossed samples "In memory of Michurin"With a hybrid (7-63-3). The work on crossing the original material was carried out by N.S. Antropova, Z.S. Zotova, I.P. Kalinina, N.I. Nazaryuk. The aim of the experiment was to create a high-yielding variety that gives an early harvest. The resulting Lama currant variety tolerates cold winters well, but can suffer from drought, so regions with a continental climate are the best option for planting it.
Black currant Lama: variety description
According to its external characteristics, the black currant Lama is identical to other varieties of this fruit and berry culture. The currant variety Lama is classified as vigorous but compact. Its thick, straight branches are covered with an even dense purple bark, which turns dark brown as it matures.
Large leathery dark green leaves are attached to the shoots through powerful purple petioles. The leaves have a three-lobed structure with noticeable notches, the tops of the lobes are pointed.
During the flowering period, large flowers are formed on the shoots, having the shape of a glass. Strongly curled sepals are tinged with pink and purple tones.
During the fruiting period of the black currant Lama, dense brushes ripen on the bushes, whose length reaches 5 cm.
Black currant Lama: characteristic of the variety
Blackcurrant Lama has a number of advantages, but it also has weaknesses that should be considered when planting it. Despite the fact that this variety is suitable for cultivation in most of the country, it requires compliance with certain technological requirements.
Resistance to environmental conditions
The Lama black currant variety is adapted to harsh winters and can successfully hibernate under snow at temperatures down to -30 degrees. Unlike frost, drought can seriously harm the currant bushes of this variety. In those cases, if the summer turned out to be hot, it is necessary to water them abundantly between the beginning of flowering and harvesting. Lack of moisture negatively affects the taste of berries - they become sour, and their number is reduced.
Features of fruiting
The Lama blackcurrant variety has outstanding yield and fruiting characteristics. It is distinguished by its early flowering period - flowers appear on its shoots in May. By the time of fruiting, the black currant Lama is also classified as a mid-early variety: its berries begin to ripen by mid-July. On average, up to 900 g of berries are harvested annually from each square meter of Lama black currant plantings, which, in terms of each bush, is from 2.5 to 2.7 kg.The undoubted advantage of the Lama black currant variety is the fact that the berries ripen at the same time - this greatly facilitates the harvesting process.
Taste characteristics of berries
Typically, llama blackcurrant berries are used for processing and preparing food. They are characterized by the correct shape of the ball, the presence of a thick glossy black skin, under which there is a fragrant juicy pulp of high density with a sweet and sour taste. The average weight of Lama currant berries ranges from 1 to 2.4 g. The number of seeds contained in the pulp gives average values. The chemical composition of the fibrous part of the berries includes a lot of sugars (up to 11%), as well as ascorbic acid (up to 165 mg per 100 g).
Black currant Lama: planting
In general, the planting of Lama currant bushes does not differ in any peculiarities. As is the case with other varieties of black currant, it is recommended to prepare the site in advance for planting by applying top dressing. The landing technology itself is quite simple and does not require special knowledge and skills. However, when choosing a site and planting material, it is recommended to be guided by certain criteria.
Timing for boarding
The best time to plant Lama black currant bushes is the first half of October. Planting in the first half of autumn will allow them to successfully adapt to a new place, take root and successfully overwinter. With the arrival of spring, competently planted bushes will quickly grow, bloom and bring a rich harvest.
If severe winters are a characteristic feature of the region, then spring planting of Lama black currant bushes is possible. At the same time, it is recommended to plant them before buds swell on the shoots in order to minimize stress for the plant.
Lama should start planting currants in dry weather, when the air temperature rises to +7 degrees and does not drop below +5 degrees. In the case of autumn planting, it is important to spend at least 30 days before the first frost.
The preparation of the site for planting black currant Lama should be started 2-3 weeks before the proposed procedure. During the preliminary treatment of the site, it is necessary to dig up the soil to a depth of no more than 0.4 m, remove all weeds and root shoots from it, and then level the surface. Planting holes with a depth of up to 0.4 m and a diameter of 0.5 to 0.6 m should be dug in the soil.The soil extracted when digging a site should be mixed with compost (1 bucket), wood ash (40 g) and superphosphates (0.2 kg).
Choosing a landing site
The choice of a place for planting black currant Llama has a great influence on the process of their cultivation. It is strongly not recommended to plant Lama currants in wetlands, since in this case it will be constantly exposed to fungal infections. When choosing a site for planting currant bushes of the Lama currant variety, you must be guided by the following criteria:
- the site should be well lit, since a lack of sunlight negatively affects the volume of the crop;
- while a little shading is required;
- it is also recommended to place Lama currant bushes under protection from drafts and strong winds in order to protect them from mechanical damage and infection with fungal infections;
- due to the moisture-loving nature of this variety of currants, hills should be avoided and plantings should be placed in lowlands;
- at the same time, an excess of moisture in the soil is also destructive for black currants, therefore, the groundwater level in the area should not exceed 150 cm;
- since the root system of currant bushes of the "Lama" variety is located close to the soil surface, it must be loose;
- recommended for planting black currant Lama are neutral or slightly acidic soils.
Pretreatment of seedlings
The process of growing black currant Lama is significantly influenced by the quality of the planting material. For this reason, the choice of seedlings should be approached with caution, following certain recommendations. They should be purchased from trusted manufacturers, in large nurseries and gardening stores. Lama currant seedlings aged from one to two take root best of all.
Before you buy a Lama blackcurrant seedling, you need to carefully examine it. Signs of a healthy plant are:
- developed root system with 3-4 shoots at least 0.2 m long;
- smooth and even trunk without visible defects and signs of damage;
- the presence of a pair of twigs at the lignification stage, with already formed buds;
- there should be no leaves on the branches - they take away nutrients from the main part of the seedlings and prevent it from forming roots.
Before starting planting, it is recommended to place the horses of the seedlings in the water 2-3 hours before planting.
You should also cut off all dry roots, as well as those processes that show signs of damage. The root part of the seedling must be immersed in a water-clay solution of medium density.
Step-by-step planting instructions
Before starting planting with a Lama black currant bush, it is necessary to correctly draw up a diagram of the location of the planting holes. It is important that the adult plants are not crowded, therefore the interval between the holes should be at least 150 cm. The process of planting Lama currants is quite simple, but there are certain recommendations, the observance of which will accelerate the adaptation of seedlings in a new place.
- The planting holes must be filled two-thirds with soil mixture;
- On top of the substrate, you need to pour a simple soil with a layer of about 5 cm, and then spill the hole with water (10 l);
- When the water is completely absorbed, a seedling should be placed in the hole at an angle (45 degrees), deepening the root collar by 10 cm;
- The root system of the seedlings should be carefully spread, and then covered with soil, avoiding the formation of voids in the soil;
- The soil in the near-trunk circle must be tamped manually, and then spilled with water at the rate of 10 liters for each plant;
- When the moisture is completely absorbed, the near-stem circle of the seedling must be mulched using dry grass or sawdust;
- To stimulate the growth of seedling shoots, it is necessary to shorten them, leaving two pairs of buds each.
In cases where the site has a modest area, you have to be careful when choosing neighbors for the Lama blackcurrant bushes, since they will not be able to get along well with every crop. It is strongly not recommended to place them near plants prone to diseases similar to currants.
- with red currant, which, due to its light-loving nature, will suffer in the shade of the spreading bushes of the black currant Lama;
- with raspberriesthat can grow widely and compete with neighbors for nutrients and moisture;
- with gooseberries due to the presence of common enemies among insect pests and common diseases.
- with honeysuckle, which is characterized by unpretentiousness and frost resistance, and also has a chemical composition of fabrics similar to currants;
- with yoshta, having immunity to kidney mites, often affecting black currants, as well as a high degree of endurance;
- with blueberries, also making high demands on soil moisture;
- with strawberry, which develops well near currants, whose aroma repels harmful insects;
- with garlic, whose pungent smell protects currant bushes from harmful insects.
Black currant Lama: variety care
Black currant Lama: photo of the variety
Caring for Lama black currant seedlings is simple and does not require special skills and knowledge.It is important to remember that this crop is moisture-loving, sensitive to fertilization and tillage, and also needs regular pruning. Below are the basic guidelines for caring for black currant Lama:
- Watering currant bushes should be carried out in the evenings, pouring water into the furrows dug around the seedling with a radius of 0.3 m.
- In the first year after planting, currant bushes need to be watered at least twice a week at the rate of 5 liters of water for each seedling. The watering rate for adult plants is 30 liters per bush every 5 days.
- After watering, you need to loosen the soil in the near-stem circle of seedlings to a depth of about 5 cm, and also remove all weeds.
- When the moisture is completely absorbed, the trunk circle of the bush must be mulched in order to retain water in the soil. For this purpose, straw or peat is suitable.
- In the spring, in early April, it is recommended to fertilize the soil around the black currant bushes with fertilizing containing nitrogen. For this purpose, the soil in the near-trunk circle is dug up with the addition of a mixture of carbamide (50 g) and ammonium nitrate (80 g).
- In the first days of June, it is recommended to feed the currant bushes with humus at the rate of 15 kg for each bush.
- With the onset of fruiting, black currant bushes should be sprayed with a mixture obtained by dissolving potassium permanganate (5 g), boric acid (3 g) and ferrous sulfate (40 g) in 10 liters of water.
- In the last week of September, it is necessary to feed the bushes with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers at the rate of 270 g for each bush. In this case, 0.2 kg of this mixture is ash, 50 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulfate.
- The first pruning of currant bushes of the "Lama" variety is carried out in early spring, before the buds swell. During this period, it is necessary to remove all damaged and dry parts of the plant.
- In the last days of June, pinching of the tops of young shoots for a couple of buds is carried out in order to accelerate their growth.
- Formative pruning of currant bushes "Lama" is carried out 14-20 days before the autumn frosts. During this procedure, all shoots growing inside the bush are removed, only the strongest and healthiest ones remain - no more than 15.
- In order to prevent the shoots from breaking under the weight of the berries, it is necessary to place vertical supports under them. This will protect the bushes from mechanical damage and from contact of berries with the soil.
Despite the frost-resistant nature of the Lama black currant bushes, they need preparation for wintering. The preparation procedure is not complicated, but it involves adherence to a certain algorithm of actions.
- Preparation for winter begins immediately after picking the berries. Once a week, planting "Lama" must be abundantly moistened so that moisture penetrates to a depth of at least 0.5 m.
- The bushes are sprayed with preparations containing copper in order to destroy the larvae of pests.
- In the first days of October, the trunk circle of each currant bush must be dug up, removing plant residues and weeds from the soil.
- To protect it from frost, each bush must be piled up to a level of 15 cm, and the soil must be mulched.
- With the arrival of frost, the branches of currant bushes should be held together in a spiral manner, fixing their tops.
- From the snow that has fallen, a snowdrift should be formed over the currant bushes in order to provide additional protection from the cold.
Black currant Lama: reproduction
Like other varieties of currants, the Lama variety is successfully propagated by cuttings, as well as by layering. The best breeding time for Llama Blackcurrant is early spring, as this will give the plants plenty of time to take root.
- Reproduction using layering. From the side shoots of a currant bush, you should choose an inclined shoot at the age of 2 years. Under it, you need to dig a depression (up to 12 cm), where the middle part of the shoot fits, while its top should remain on the soil surface.The deepening must be covered with loose soil and watered regularly. By the fall, the cuttings will acquire their own root system, it can be separated from the mother bush and planted nearby.
- Propagation by cuttings. Cuttings are harvested in advance, in the fall, prior to their planting. In the last week of October, cuttings from 15 to 20 cm long are cut from the shoots of the current year with a thickness of at least 1 cm.Cuttings must be covered with melted paraffin, and the cuttings must be placed in damp paper wrapped in foil and stored in the refrigerator. Cuttings can be planted as early as next spring, after removing a layer of paraffin from them by means of oblique pruning.
The need for additional pollination
Black currant Lama is a self-fertile variety and does not need the presence of pollinating plants on the site. However, the location of other varieties of currant bushes in the neighborhood will increase the yield of Lama currants.
Diseases and pests
Compliance with technological recommendations will help protect Lama currants from infection with fungal infections and the attack of harmful insects. Violation of the technology of growing this crop inevitably leads to the emergence of these problems. Most often, Lama currants are susceptible to the following diseases:
- A fungal infection called powdery mildew appears on all parts of currant bushes as a whitish coating of powdery consistency. Infection with a fungus is indicated by a lag in the growth of bushes, deformation of leaf plates and berries. Gradually, a light gray bloom is darker, acquiring a brown color. To save the diseased plant and prevent further spread of the infection, it is necessary to cut off all the affected parts of the bush as soon as possible, and then treat it with a fungicide (Topaz is suitable).
- When black currant is infected with terry, a change in the shape of the flowers is observed, the formation of ovaries does not occur. The already existing fruits are also deformed and do not reach the ripeness phase. The leaf plates narrow and change color to a lighter one. Infected currant bushes must be destroyed, since they cannot be treated. Those remaining at the planting site must be immediately treated with an insecticide that destroys kidney mites, which are carriers of terry.
- Disease anthracnose accompanied by the formation of brown areas on the leaf plates. Gradually, the leaves dry and crumble, which can lead to the death of the entire plant in the future. All parts of the plant that show signs of infection with a fungal infection should be cut off and burned. The infected bush and neighboring plants must be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%), or with a fungicide ("Kuprozan").
The main pests that threaten the black currant of the Lama variety are kidney mites and sawfly beetles, and this culture is also affected by glass.
- A symptom of kidney mite damage is the swelling of the buds with their subsequent destruction and the disclosure of deformed fresh foliage. Gradually, kidney necrosis and deformation of the leaf plates, whose color also changes, occurs. As a result of such changes, the yield of the infected currant bush decreases. To get rid of bud mites, it is necessary to cut off all the deformed branches of the bushes, and then carry out the treatment with an insecticide ("Tedion").
- Fruit sawfly larvae cause great harm to the crop, since they feed on currant berries, in particular, seeds. Affected berries swell and reshape and then fall off. You cannot use them for food purposes. All deformed berries must be torn off and destroyed. Then the affected bush is treated with Chlorophos.
- Glassy larvae settle in cracks and cavities in the bark of shoots and branches of black currant, feeding on their wood.Signs of damage are almost imperceptible, a diseased plant dries out completely after 1-2 years and dies. If it was possible to find the glass, you should cut off and burn all the parts of the bush affected by it, and then carry out the treatment with the use of an insecticide ("Spark»).
In order to reduce the risk of the appearance of harmful insects and infection of currant bushes with fungal infections, it is recommended to carry out preventive treatment. To this end, the following procedures must be followed:
- regularly loosen and weed the soil in the area with currant bushes;
- observe the watering regime;
- prevent thickening of Lama currant bushes through annual pruning;
- follow the recommendations regarding the planting scheme for bushes;
- on the eve of wintering, dig up the soil on the site;
- choose healthy Lama currant seedlings for planting;
- correctly feed currant bushes;
- on the eve of flowering, it is imperative to spray currant bushes with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) in order to destroy pest larvae and fungal spores.
Harvesting and storage
Since Llama blackcurrant berries ripen at the same time, the harvest can be harvested in one step. The fact that the berries are fully ripe is evidenced by their black color. In the process of harvesting, it is recommended to observe the following rules:
- 14-20 days before the planned collection of berries, you should stop watering the bushes so that the fruits become sweeter;
- the best time for picking berries is morning or evening, in the absence of precipitation, since excess moisture adversely affects the commercial qualities of black currant fruits;
- picking berries one at a time, and not with whole brushes, you can maintain their attractive appearance and extend the shelf life;
- it is better to put plucked berries in a flat container, while the layer thickness should be no more than 4 cm - this will keep the berries intact;
- only undamaged berries of the correct spherical shape can be stored and transported;
- the shelf life of fresh black currant berries in the refrigerator is no more than 3 days.
The Lama variety of black currant is distinguished by the versatility of its fruits: juices and compotes, preserves, jams can be prepared from them. Berries can be frozen, ground with granulated sugar, or eaten fresh.
Compliance with simple recommendations will allow you to grow a fruitful black currant Lama in the garden. Subject to the rules given in this article, any gardener, including beginners, can cope with this task.
Black currant Lama: reviews of gardeners about the variety
Black currant Lama: photo of the variety
Tamara Borisovna, Samara region: “Blackcurrant Lama was known to me for a long time, as every second gardener spoke about its merits. I myself began to grow it relatively recently, but have already managed to appreciate all the delights of the variety. Lama currant turned out to be a very productive crop with an attractive appearance of berries, which can be consumed both fresh and made for the winter. It is very easy to grow Lama black currant because the harvesting process does not require much effort. "
Anastasia Igorevna, Chelyabinsk region: “Black currant Lama is a good variety that has high taste characteristics and is also frost-resistant. However, despite the impressive list of advantages, black currant Lama also has a number of weaknesses. These include the modest weight of the berries, as well as the vulnerability of the variety to dry weather, since due to a lack of moisture, the berries become smaller and lose their pleasant taste. In addition, due to the high growth rates, Lama blackcurrant bushes need regular pruning. "