Bulbophyllum - Bulbophyllum (Orchid)
Almost the most numerous genus of the Orchid family is the genus Bulbophyllum. The Plant List Internet project says that there are almost 1900 varieties of this plant, but foreign sources assure that there are many times more species. The vegetation of this culture is very diverse, it is not easy to understand that these are relatives.
Bulbofillum orchids can be small or huge. Pseudobulbs, leaves, their appearance and coloration differ in size. The Bulbophyllum orchid can bloom for several days or many months, there are varieties that bloom almost constantly, without interruption for a whole year, and they do not need rest. Some plants are famous for their chic inflorescences, while others are famous for single flowers.
In most Bulbophyllum species, the petals form a funnel-shaped depression, and there are plants that have long branches that look like the tails of mice and rats. Hence the name, which translates as "rat tail orchid". Only a small amount of this vegetation has a pleasant floral aroma, most of the plants give off the smell of meat, which has deteriorated to attract flies for pollination.
In the natural environment, Bulbophyllum orchids have an epiphytic lifestyle, rarely grow as lithophytes or spread rhizome over the soil surface. Some species like to grow in temperate warm climatic conditions of rivers, where the air is always humid, but most grow in cool mountainous areas. Geography of distribution: the tropics of America, Asia, the islands of Oceania.
Bulbophyllum: orchid features
Bulbophyllum Orchid: photo of a plant
The Bulbophyllum plant has a stem creeping along the surface of the soil, which bears single-leaved or double-leaved convex or angular pseudobulbs. The top is covered with thin or hard and dense leaves growing straight up or drooping.
The formation of the peduncles of Bulbophyllum occurs at the bases of the tuberidia, but in rare cases they are formed immediately from the rhizome. Most of the wild varieties have many inflorescences, and only a few varieties are distinguished by one drop-down corolla on a flower-bearing stem. Flowers can be different in size - there are species with very small flowers, but there are also a large number of varieties with large flowers.
Bulbophyllum flower in the form of a voluminous lip, slightly pubescent or cilia. The flowers are simple or have 3 lobes. A vertical and shortened column can be seen at the base.
Bulbophyllum orchids require bright illumination, but diffused. This means that it is better to plant bulbophyllum in good lighting. In a shaded place, the development of the plant will also be normal, but it may not bloom as it should. Very bright rays of the sun on the leaves can leave burns, for this reason, if the foliage begins to lighten, the plant is removed to a place where there is no direct sun. Since the Bulbophyllum orchid is almost never dormant, in the winter season it is kept under additional lighting, this is done with the help of photo lamps.
The main condition for the cultivation of bulbophyllum is good air circulation where the plant is located, not only during the day, but also at night. The area around the orchid should be fresh at all times.It does not matter what method you planted the crop - with open roots on a block or in a container.
It also requires careful monitoring of temperature conditions. There should be no sudden changes in temperature during the day. Maintain the temperature regime all year round within 20-22 degrees, as the microclimate must be warm. If there is no thermometer in the room, the orchid will tell you how it really is - comfortable or not. Touch the leaves with your hand, and you will feel whether they are cold or too warm.
Bulbophyllum: planting an orchid
Bulbophyllum: orchid photo
Orchid planting methods: in a pot, on a block, in a basket, on a container turned upside down.
The planting method, which is considered traditional, is simple and is used by most flower growers - planting the plant in a regular plastic pot with many holes. When planting, you need to make a drainage layer, which occupies 1/3 of the container in thickness. The soil mixture should include: fine-grained pine bark, sphagnum moss, charcoal, seramis. The soil mixture fills the rest of the container.
At the bottom of the soil mix there are large pieces of components, closer to the surface layer - small pieces of "ingredients", on top of all this must be mulched to keep moisture. Moss is used for mulching. The seedling is placed closer to the wall to preserve the place where the rhizome with young pseudobulbs will grow. Otherwise, new growths will crawl out over the edges of the pot.
There are frequent cases of bulbophyllum cultivation in baskets made of wood or on a block. This method is difficult in that it will be difficult to keep the roots always moist. But flower growers with experience have come up with an easy innovation - in the horizontal well of the tree, on which the plant is attached, a small-volume gutter is cut out, water will be retained in it after watering for a rather long time. But remember that with this method of planting, salinization of a block of wood and soil can damage the root system of the orchid.
There is another unusual method of planting a flower. Coconut fiber or moss is placed inside a container turned upside down with a large number of holes. From the outside, the pot is wrapped with the same components and secured with twine or wire of small thickness. A seedling is installed at the top, it should be fixed so that the plant is stable, a small amount of moss should be placed under the pseudobulbs. The culture is cultivated as ampelous, while its good health is observed.
It is necessary to transplant the Bulbophyllum orchid when the rhizome begins to creep out beyond the edges of the container. It is recommended to transplant in the spring season, but the fact that the orchid blooms without interruption can do its bit.
Bulbophyllum transplant algorithm:
- First, you need to determine if a transplant is needed. If the rhizome with pseudobulbs is located outside the edges of the pot, then it's time.
- The orchid is pulled out of the container, you need to carefully examine the roots. The soil mixture is replaced with a fresh one, but often it is applied a second time if it has not started to rot.
- A drainage layer is laid at the bottom of the container, then large parts of the soil mixture.
- An orchid is placed on top closer to the wall of the container, the root system is sprinkled with small fractions of substrate residues.
- The flower is fixed with a specialized device to prevent it from tilting while rooting in a new potting mix.
- The transplanted plant is not immediately watered, only after a few days. It is worth feeding after 30 days.
Bulbophyllum: orchid care
Bulbophyllum: video about growing an orchid
It is important when watering Bulbophyllum orchids that the soil mixture is completely wetted, but excess moisture should not be in the pan. It is impossible for the soil mixture to completely dry out to a crunch.But in the winter season with low temperature conditions, the number of waterings must be regulated. The regulation depends on the air temperature, in this case it is allowed to dry the substrate for a short period.
Orchids, which are grown in baskets or on a block, are watered using a dipping method. The root system will tell you about timely watering. The roots are also sprayed with lukewarm water.
Crohn Bulbophyllum does not require very high moisture content, the level that is present in the room is enough for it, it is about 35%, no less. Lower humidity can kill the orchid.
Bulbophyllum is fed 1 time in 7 days on the leaves. A weak concentrate of specialized fertilizer mixtures for orchids is used, while the dosage is reduced several times compared to the dose indicated on the pack by the manufacturer. Top dressing is applied after watering, namely, in the afternoon, so that the action of the sun's rays is no longer dangerous. In winter, the orchid is fed in rare cases, compared with the active growing season, fertilization is carried out 1 time / 15-20 days.
Reproduction of Bulbophyllum is carried out by dividing the rhizome during transplantation; 3 adult pseudobulbs should be left on each plot. The sections of the cuts are powdered with powdered charcoal. Seed propagation is used by breeders to obtain new orchid products of this genus.
Diseases and harmful insects
Bulbophyllum is more resistant to disease than other varieties of orchids. The main difficulty that can affect the plant is the appearance of rot due to overflow. Fighting rot and saving the orchid is possible if the culture is slightly affected, as well as if the disease is detected in time. Fungicides are used, the soil mixture is dried or replaced with a new one, and the number and abundance of watering is further adjusted.
Species with thin leaves are susceptible to frequent attacks of harmful insects. aphids may appear on the orchid, but they noticeably harm the leaves of the snail that enter the room with new flowers. Pests are destroyed by insecticides, and snails are eliminated by changing the soil mixture to a new one.
Mistakes that are made when cultivating bulbophyllums.
Incomprehensible spots cover the leaves, the color of the foliage changes to a lighter shade, which means that there is an excess of illumination in the room, you need to make a little shading, ensure the diffusion of light.
The appearance of the ends of the leaves as if burnt, which means that the plant was overfed with nitrogen-containing mixtures, it is necessary to rinse the soil mixture well.
Decay of pseudobulbs occurs after excessive watering, with high air humidity, with poor air circulation or in the absence of ventilation.
No flowering of Bulbophyllum is observed, therefore, Bulbophyllum is very hot, or there is no regulation of watering, while watering can be both excessive and insufficient. The orchid may not bloom at any particular time, this may be due to the characteristic features of some species.
Bulbophyllum: varieties and types
There are almost 2000 varieties of bulbophyllum, so it is not easy to understand which of them are more famous and popular in home cultivation. But still, flower growers are interested in learning about some species for replenishing indoor spaces with such an exotic flower.
Bulbofillum Beccari (B. Beccarii).
Bulbophyllum Beccari: photo of an orchid
This variety of Bulbophyllum is interesting to most flower growers, but it is difficult to grow it at home, since the plant is large in size. The culture grows in the tropics of Borneo, its root is thick, 5-20 cm in diameter, wrapping around a tree trunk, making its way to the top, to the light.
Along the entire length, there are small egg-shaped tuberidia with a large thick leaf at the top, which is painted in a yellowish-green color and has a cup-shaped shape. In tuberidia, there is an accumulation of organic residues used by the plant as a top dressing.
The inflorescence is formed from the root near the pseudobulb and hangs down, it is 20-22 cm long. The flowers are small, yellowish, have red streaks. The number of flowers usually exceeds a hundred. The flowers smell like rotten meat, this is necessary to attract flies to pollinate the plant.
Bulbophyllum Medusa (B. Medusae).
Bulbophyllum Medusa: orchid photo
Bulbophyllum Medusa is so named because it has a very strong resemblance to a jellyfish. Tuberidia are in the form of an ellipse, at the top one compacted leaf is formed, painted in an emerald color. The flowering stem of Bulbophyllum Medusa is inclined downward, there are about twelve small buds on it. With their simultaneous opening, it seems as if one large rim has opened. The narrowing of the sepals to the bottom occurs gradually, later they turn into thin filaments reaching a length of 25-30 cm. The filaments of Bulbophyllum Medusa can be decorated with dots of scarlet or orange color.
Bulbophyllum Makrantum (B. Macranthum).
Small-sized flower Bulbophyllum Makrantum, grows up to 15 cm, has a creeping rhizome. Tuberidia are narrow, elongated, and one leaf is formed at the top. The diameter of the flower is 5 cm. The coloring of the flowers of Bulbophyllum Makrantum themselves is as if they are densely covered with spots - against the background of white there are blots of purple color, which merge with each other. The sepals of Bulbophyllum Macrantum are connected in the shape of a boat, their ends are solid with a purple-purple hue. A distinctive feature is the presence of a pleasant delicate aroma that combines the smell of freshly cut cucumber and cloves.
Bulbophyllum Frosty (B. Frostii)
Bulbophyllum Frosty: photo of an orchid
Dwarf epiphytic plant orchid Bulbophyllum Frosty, which was found in the Thai, Vietnamese territories, as well as on the Malay Peninsula. Tuberidia are small, oval-shaped, yellow-green in color. The formation of the peduncle occurs at the base of the pseudobulb, there are 2-5 flowers in it, which are unusual in their appearance, they look like stems from fairy tales or chicks, whose beaks are open. The petals of the Bulbophyllum Frosty orchid are light olive in color, they are covered with growths of a dark purple color, similar to warts. Lip of dark cherry color, bent in the form of a groove longitudinally to the axis located in the center. Bulbophyllum Frosty blooms throughout the winter season from December to April.
Bulbophyllum Phalaenopsis (B. Phalaenopsis).
Bulbophyllum Phalaenopsis is large, its homeland is the western New Guinean lowlands. The leaves reach a length of 12 cm, grow from the upper parts of the pseudobulbs of a round shape, their diameter is 30 cm.The shortened peduncle of Bulbophyllum Phalaenopsis grows from the base of the tuberidium, it has an inflorescence that has smooth pubescent flowers, painted in a blood-red color, the flower width is 7.5 cm, the flowers give off the smell of rotten meat. It is not so strong, you can feel it only with very close contact with Bulbophyllum Phalaenopsis
Bulbophyllum Bicolor ("Two-color", B. Bicolor).
Bulbophyllum Bicolor: orchid photo
A miniature flower, its homeland is Hong Kong, reaches a height of 13 cm, no less. Pseudobulbs in the form of an ellipse, do not exceed 2 cm in length, their diameter is 1 cm.At the top, one narrow leaf in the form of an oval is formed, reaching about 11 cm in length.
The peduncle grows up to 4.5 cm, appears from the base of the tuberidium. The inflorescence consists of 3-5 beige flowers, the petals are covered with thin lines of rich scarlet color, which are located along the surface of the orchid.The lip has a yellow or coral coloration. Bulbophyllum blooms during the last winter days, namely, in February days. The plant blooms for two months.
Bulbophyllum Lobby (B. lobbii).
The orchid received the name Bulbophyllum Lobby in honor of the traveler and botanist from England T. Lobby, who brought the orchid from the southeast of Asia to the UK. Bulbophyllum Lobby is medium in size, grows up to 30 cm, has yellow-green egg-shaped tuberidia and leathery leaves, reaching a length of about 25 cm.
Growth of the peduncle of the Bulbophyllum Lobby comes from a nodule on the rhizome, has 1 large flower, 7-10 cm in diameter, which is considered the most decorative among all bulbophillums. Sepals and petals are pointed and slightly curved, the main coloring is yellowish, but there is also orange or light olive. The entire surface of the petals of Bulbophyllum Lobby is strewn with dots and strokes of pink, dark cherry or purple color.
Bulbophyllum Woolly-lipped (B. Lasiochilum).
Thai orchid. Pseudobulbs are oblong, in the shape of an oval, the leaves are long, in the shape of an egg, on the contrary. The flowers are small, emit an aroma, their diameter is 3 cm, the inflorescence is in the form of an umbrella. The sepals are yellow or fawn, covered with scarlet spots, the petals and lip are juicy, red in color.
Bulbophyllum Rothschild (B. rothschildianum).
Bulbophyllum Rothschild: photo of an orchid
The Bulbophyllum plant is named after orchid collectors from the UK. It is almost impossible to find this orchid growing wild; scientists have found several specimens in the northeast of India. A small flower, reaching a height of about 20 cm, grows in the form of a bush, gives more than one growth per period.
Pseudobulbs are 4 cm long, at the top of each one is formed by one sheet, painted in a dark emerald color, reaching no more than 18 cm in length. The peduncle is curved in the form of an arc, the inflorescence is in the shape of an umbrella, contains original flowers-skirts, which are formed by sepals located on the sides, they are covered with an upper petal-hood. Along the edges of the rim, a bright fringe is decoratively adorned, consisting of villi in the form of ribbons, which sway from the air vibrations. Basically, the petals are painted in a light green-white color, and the surface of the petals is studded, as if with beads, with crimson-scarlet tubercles.
Bulbophyllum Careyanum (B. careyanum).
An epiphytic plant, reaching a height of about 25-30 cm, with elongated pseudobulbs of light green color and linear leaves. Cylinder-shaped inflorescences, reaching a length of about 20-25 cm, contain small flowers of orange-yellow or greenish color, which have a moderate aroma of overripe fruit.
Bulbophyllum is less common among Russian orchid collectors than phalaenopsis. But its original, exotic appearance and unpretentiousness can become the signs for which this Bulbophyllum plant can be grown in indoor conditions, it will delight the eye for sure.