Privet grows in the form of shrubs and small trees. The plant can be found in European, Asian, North African territories. In appearance, privet resembles lilac, which is known to everyone in the Russian latitudes. And this is understandable, because privet and lilac are close relatives. Shrub plantings are very well used in landscape design. Privet can very easily take on almost any appearance when pruning and shaping, however, an uncut shrub does not look very attractive. The evergreen tree is highly popular with landscape designers.
This genus of plants includes deciduous and evergreen shrubs and small trees. According to descriptive characteristics, there are more than 50 varieties of privet. The plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness to care, it can grow well in a shaded area, because of this privet is so widespread in landscape decoration. In most cases, the tree is used to create hedges.
The leaves of the plant are small. From above, they are leathery, with a glossy effect. The leaf is in the form of an oval, it grows up to 6 cm. Privet can shed its foliage when cold weather sets in, or, conversely, remain evergreen, in this case it all depends on the type of shrub. There is also a mixed type of culture, then the leaves are dropped in parts.
The flowers are white, the inflorescences are paniculate. When the privet is in bloom, a strong but amazing scent is emitted. After the shrub has faded, the fruit is formed. The plant begins to bloom from the first days of June. In warm climatic conditions, privet can bloom 7-14 days earlier. Flowering continues for three months. The flowering tree is very attractive for its aromatic qualities, but some varieties have an overly pungent odor.
At the stage of flower formation, privet turns into a beautiful and attractive outwardly tree in a special way. In the descriptive description of the plant, its flowers are compared to a snowball that covers the branches to the very top.
The berries are colored bluish-black. The fruits hang on the bush throughout the winter. The popular name for the berries is "wolf berries". Each fruit contains 1-4 seeds, the berries are round in shape.
The shrub reaches a height of 1.5-3 meters, the growth depends on the specific variety. There are dwarf varieties with a height of 0.6-1 m. Growth is regulated by a circumcision procedure. The main advantage of the plant is that it can be formed as you like, the shape can be spherical, and conical, and pyramidal.
Is privet dangerous?
Fruits and foliage are poisonous and dangerous. Both a person and an animal can get poisoned. Berries contain tetroid glycosides that cause a poisoning reaction, especially if you eat a lot of fruits at once. Moreover, the bark and other plant fragments are used for medical purposes. However, you should be familiar with the exact formulation and use the drug strictly according to the prescription. Parents of young children should not forget about the toxicity of the shrub, in order to avoid harming the health of this decorative tree.
The main signs that a person is poisoned are colic, weakness, diarrhea. Further, you can lose coordination of movements, convulsions are possible. In most cases, death can occur.
Privet in landscape design
The tree can be found in a large number of photographs with decorated landscapes. The plant is used by professionals and amateurs to decorate areas. There are a great many photos of shrubs and trees in sculpture. Privet looks great when planted alone and when planted in groups. The plant is widely used as hedges. The variety of privet can allow you to choose a shrub of such a growth that would be suitable for the territory. This plant is used in topiary, in alpine hills. Also, the culture is widely used to create fences. Such fences can be found almost everywhere.
A wide variety of privet allows you to choose an individual, which is right for you, decoration of the site. For those who love evergreen decors, there are varieties for them that do not fall foliage, and even in the winter season, the shrub will delight you. Varieties differ in size, crown, length of inflorescences and other characteristics.
This variety is the most popular in the field of landscape decoration. This is a subspecies of "Japanese" or "Oval-leaved" privet. The shrub is semi-evergreen, which means that the leaves are partially shed. The leaves are rich in color, the plant looks decorative even in winter. It grows well in any climate, does not tolerate moist soil. This is a light-loving tree, so it is recommended to choose a well-lit place for it with a minimum amount of shade. The leaves with a glossy effect, in the shape of an oval, grow up to 6 cm. The edges of the leaves are distinguished by a golden edging.
The bark of the plant is grayish brown. The fruits are black, shiny, are dangerous to people, as they are poisonous. The variety has good wind tolerance, so it does not need to be planted in weathered areas.
This variety grows in Chinese, Korean, Japanese territories. The tree is compact. The outer part of the leaf is shiny, the leaf grows up to 15 cm. The inflorescences reach a length of 18 cm. The plant blooms for 3 months. This type of privet is one of the most frost-resistant species, tolerating frosty temperature conditions down to -15 degrees. However, if the temperature drops more, then it is necessary to shelter the plant during the harsh winter season.
This is a subspecies of Chinese privet. A characteristic feature of the variety are elongated leaves, sharp, with fields of golden color. The appearance of flowers occurs in the autumn season. The flowers are painted in white with a creamy tone. The plant has a very pleasant scent when in bloom. The first flowering will be only three years after planting the shrub. This variety is light-requiring, the planting area should be well lit with a minimum amount of shade. The variety quickly grows, grows up to 2 m. It is often used to create hedges.
The wild-growing variety can be found in the Japanese and Korean territories, therefore the name is. In Japan, the variety is used to create ikebana. Reaches a height of 4 m. A wild tree can be up to 8 m high, but it is a slow-growing plant. Privet has a compact and dense crown. The plant can easily take on any kind when pruned. Small leaves of dark green color. The variety is resistant to the cold season, and therefore the shrub can grow without problems in most Russian territories. The flowers are white, but the scent is not so pleasant.
Privet of Sinensa.
A small plant native to Chinese soil. This is a kind of privet "Ordinary".In middle Russian latitudes, it reaches a height of up to 2 m, but if climatic conditions allow, the growth of a shrub can be up to five meters. The variety is frost-resistant, can withstand transient frost periods down to -30 degrees. If the winter season is very harsh, then it is necessary to make a shelter for the plant.
When decorating landscapes, this variety is used as low hedges, topiary, in a spherical or square shape.
This variety blooms in the second or third summer month. The plant reaches a height of 1.5 m. The shrub has a good tolerance to diseases and harmful insects, it is pruning, so it looks especially decorative after it. Privet is named so for the color of the leaves, which seems to be powdered with snow. The variety is drought-resistant, lives well without frequent watering. Does not tolerate overly moist soil.
This is a well-known variety of "Ordinary" privet. Flowering occurs from June to July days, however, white flowers emit an overly pungent aroma. The shoots of the plant are vertical. The bush is considered semi-evergreen, reaching 4 m in height. The leaves are glossy, painted in a dark green color; in the winter season, the color changes to purple-brown. In the spring, shedding of foliage occurs. Berries are black, glossy, have several seeds. Basically, this shrub is unpretentious, but shaded places cannot always be tolerated well.
It is a deciduous plant with a rounded crown, growing up to 5 m. The branches are thin, curved. Inflorescences are paniculate, grow up to 20 cm in length. The flowers are white and have a pleasant aroma. Flowering occurs later than other varieties, in the last summer days or in the first autumn. The berries are shiny, black-purple in color, egg-shaped. The shrub does not like to grow on damp, clayey soils. It has poor tolerance to winter seasons with frosty periods, the plant is thermophilic, and can tolerate drought. If the privet freezes in the winter season, it will easily recover in the spring season. This is a fast-growing plant that lends itself well to pruning.
Privet planting and care
For the decorativeness of the plant and, thereby, for decorating the territory with it for a long time, it is necessary to correctly plant the privet and properly care for it. It is required to choose the best planting time and site. The place may depend on the type of plant, but the agrotechnical methods are almost identical, there are no large differences in watering and pruning for different varieties. Trimming and shaping are mandatory, otherwise the privet will look sloppy and unkempt.
When planting a crop, a site is selected and prepared. First, a site is selected. The tree is not afraid of the wind, it can grow in a shaded place. The plant is unpretentious to the ground, but it is better not to plant it on acidic, sandy and dry soils, or it is necessary to add fertile mixtures to the ground. The crop should be planted a meter away from nearby plants or buildings.
It is recommended to prepare a soil mixture for planting. It consists of two parts of humus, three parts of sod land, one part of sand. It is advisable to plant privet in the spring season before bud break. In the autumn season, it is also allowed to plant shrubs. The main thing is that she has time to adapt before the onset of the first cold snaps.
The planting hole is dug 25 cm deep, its diameter is 65 cm. The depth is determined more precisely by the type of root system. The hole should be slightly larger in depth and diameter than the roots. The bottom of the hole is spilled with water, then a drainage layer in the form of gravel is laid.The drainage should be 20 cm thick. Nitroammofoska is added to the prepared soil mixture, then a little soil is poured into the pit in the form of a mound. Next, a seedling is installed, the roots are straightened in advance. Then the rest of the nutrient soil is poured in.
Thirty days after planting the plant, the periosteal circle should not dry out, then it is mulched with peat. You can also mulch with straw.
To create a hedge, it is advisable to plant plants not in holes, but in trenches. The spacing between seedlings is 0.4 m. This is the best distance to obtain the necessary compaction of the fence.
Watering and fertilizing.
A large number of varieties are distinguished by excellent tolerance to dry periods and do not tolerate overly moist soils. Therefore, you do not need to water very often. If there is a lot of precipitation in the summer, then watering is not required at all. If the summer season is dry, then watering is carried out on rare occasions, but abundantly. 3 buckets of water are poured under each plant, at least. Moreover, 4 waterings will be enough for the period.
It is required to feed the culture in the spring season. Top dressing should be in the form of organic matter. It is applied in a bucket of humus or compost fertilizer for each plant. If privet is used as a hedge, then fertilizing is distributed under each plant. Granular superphosphate is also added. Fertilizer is sprinkled with soil, the seedling is watered without fail.
How to loosen and mulch the soil.
The surface soil layer requires regular loosening. The root system is well saturated with air, the plant is less threatened by diseases, especially those associated with a high level of moisture. For planting plants, the soil is well dug up for softness and looseness.
If you mulch the soil, then moisture will remain, the mulch will protect the seedlings from frosty time. Therefore, mulching of the culture is mandatory 30 days after planting and in the autumn season, before the onset of the winter frosty period.
Circumcision is the most important care procedure. Privet grows quickly, so it needs to be formed on a regular basis. The plant is pruned during the planting season compared to other ornamental vegetation. The tops of the shoots are cut off for the first time.
When shoots grow back by 15-20 cm, they are shortened again. Because of this, the plant becomes more luxuriant. Pruning should be done during the first two years of privet development.
You need to cut the hedge 2 times / year - in the last spring and summer months. The shrub also needs to carry out sanitary cutting, carried out in order to remove diseased and frozen branches. This type of pruning is done early in the spring. After all affected branches have been removed, the remaining shoots are cut off by another 1/3.
How to prepare privet for the winter season.
The plant can tolerate cold winter seasons with ease. Some varieties are distinguished by their tolerance to harsh frost periods. It is necessary to prepare the culture for the winter season in order to avoid cutting out half of the bush in the spring season when carrying out sanitary pruning. To prepare the plant for the winter season, it is necessary to mulch the soil. Peat or straw is used for this. The layer should be 15 cm thick. When a sufficient amount of snow falls, the largest number of branches bends to the soil and is covered with snow. A thick cover of snow will protect the shoots from freezing.
Reproduction of privet
Reproduction methods of privet: seed, layering, cuttings, root suckers.
The most laborious method is seed. Cutting and propagation by layering are the most popular methods. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, and therefore summer residents propagate the shrub as they want.But it is better to be familiar with all breeding techniques.
This method is considered widespread and most used because it is simple and affordable. The best rooting is observed in cuttings that were cut during the summer season. The shrub can be propagated not only by young shoots, but also healthy ones from last year. There is almost no hassle with them. The length of the stalk should be 10-12 cm. The petiole is rooted in sod soil with a sandy surface layer. The cutting is set in the soil at an angle of 45 degrees. The seedling deepens by 5 cm, that's enough. In order for a plant to root properly, constant moisture and temperature conditions of 20-25 degrees are required. To create optimal conditions, most gardeners use plastic bottles without a throat, they are covered with cuttings. The appearance of the first roots occurs within 30 days, and 3 months after planting, the petiole already has a well-developed root system. Then the cuttings are transplanted into containers that are larger in size compared to the previous ones, the plants are grown until they reach a height of 0.6 m. Only after the growth has increased, the cuttings are planted on a permanent growing area.
Reproduction by layering.
This is not as time-consuming as grafting. By layering, you can reproduce almost all varieties of shrubs.
- Choosing a stronger shoot, bending it to the soil.
- The part that will be dug in is slightly incised.
- The branch is fixed.
- Sprinkled with earth, covered with sphagnum on top.
- The upper part of the branch is not buried.
- The moss must be kept moist at all times.
- If the cut has released the roots, then the branch will grow. Consequently, the seedling has taken root. The cuttings are separated from the mother plant and planted in the next spring season.
- If you do not want to drip, then the branch can be scratched in two places, this fragment is placed in a polyethylene bag with moist and fertile soil. The bag is sealed or sealed. Using this unusual method, you can collect several layers from one shrub at the same time.
It must be said right away that seed germination is at a low level. For this reason, this method is too laborious and energy-consuming. But some people like this method. Seed collection can be carried out from berries that appear at the 6th year of plant development.
For the seed method, the largest grains are selected and then placed in water. You need to propagate privet only with drowned seeds. In the autumn season, namely, in October days, the seeds are placed in the soil so that the strongest grains can cope with the winter season. A year later, the first shoots will appear.
Diseases and harmful insects
The privet shrub is one of those vegetation that is immune to almost all diseases. Dangerous diseases can be considered: powdery mildew, grayish or dark green spot. As a rule, if a plant is sick with these ailments, this means that the acidity of the soil is increased. It is possible to carry out the processing of the culture with specialized means in a timely manner, and cut off the affected shoots.
Harmful insects that often appear on privet: aphids, thrips, spider mites, scale insects.
To prevent the attacks of these creatures, it is required to treat the tree with complexes of pest preparations 2 times / year.
Few have seen and know the photographs and descriptive characteristics of privet, because the popular name of this shrub is "Wolf berries". But in fact, the bush is an amazingly beautiful plant that can become a decoration of any territory. The shrub is used to create bonsai, in Japan the culture is used to make ikebana. In European countries, on a large number of sites, the shrub is used to form fences and hedges.However, privet is also often found singly. The plant is comfortable to cut, it is fast-growing, unpretentious to care, and is immune to most diseases. That is why privet has only more and more fans over the years.